Why Education Matters

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Environmental Management
-Sulfates
Suffery or rotten egg smell high levels- over 500 mgll, temporary diarrhea -Nitrogen
Nitrates - blue baby syndrome
Limit-10mg/l
-Eutrophication
Too many nutrients.
Too much algae
Leads to oxygen drops
Fish kills
-Phosphorus
Causes eutrophication
From agricultural runoff - detergents
Removal may cause rise in sewerbills
-Toxins
Lead, arsenic, some solvents, Pesticides
Mutagens- can cause mutations in DNA
Carcinogens- cause cancer (in peanut butter)
-Pathogens- 
bacteria -typhoid, cholera
Viruses - hepatitis, polio, Norwalk virus
Parasites - gladiators, cryptosporidium, amoebas, worms
Use indicator species - E. Coli (usually very recent)
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-Chlorine Residual
Cl in a form that will kill germs
hypochlorite - bleach
Hypochloronsacid  - Cl + water
Need to have residual in water lines
Have 0.2 to 1.0 mg/L of residual
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Chapter 5
-Water Pollution
 Point Sources- factories, power plants, poorly operated wasterwater plants, food processing  Large feedlots
Large pollution potential, easy to identify
 Non Point - homes, small farms, golf courses
harder to regulate

Groundwater
Low turbidty - low treatment, lower cost
Over pumping can cause problems
Hard to remove pollutants
-Sources of groundwater-
Industry
Military
Septic tanks
Landfills
Mining
Waste from oil & gas production
Agriculture
Street runoff
Salt water intrusion

-Preventing groundwater pollution-
Willhend protection
Zoning
Monitoring
Every city required to have this

-Remediation of groundwater-
Bioremediation (needs to be organic material)
Extract, treat, reinfect
Evaporate

-Preventing Surface Pollution-
Good watershed mgt.
Protection zones
On site retention 
--Less pollution
    Less storm runoff
    Use water for landscape
Ocean Pollution
1992 - congress banned ocean dumping
-1965 - congress passed water quality act-
Goal- reduce stream pollution
Set stream standards
No individual accountability
-Clean Water Act -
had individual accountability
Each point source was required to have a release permit

--TMDL - Total Maximum Dailyload--
How much phosphorus can Utah lake handle in one day without problems?

Phosphorus - detergents in waste water -add treatment
                          - soil erosion - control is by watershed mgt. TMDL Process - Sewer Bills go up
--Water Supply--
Study the hydrologic cycle
--Groundwater--
Low Turbidity
Less Treatment
Slowly Replenished
Need well head protection
Each has a specific yield
Hard to predict flow
--Surface Water--
Turbid - needs more treatment
Replenished annually
Annual flow varies
Drought & flood - random
--Other Water Supplies--
Reclaimed wastewater - irrigation
Desalinated ocean water
Ice bergs
Condensation of Moisture in Air
--Purposes of Water Treatment--
Remove Pathogens
Remove any unpleasant taste
Control erosion
Remove excess hardness
--Common Steps--
Screens
Coagulation
Flocculation
Sedimentation
Filtration
Disinfection
Other - Fluoridation (cavities), softening, iron & manganese removal --Safe Drinking Water Act - 1974--
Applies to public water systems
15 or more connections or
25 or more people
60 days or more per year
--Primary MCLs (Primary Contaminant Level)--
Health Related
--Secondary MCLs--
Aesthetic
_Areas of Concern_
Organics
Inorganic a
Microbe
turbidity
Radiation

--Sampling--
Turbidity - 4 Hrs (Minimum)
Coliform - Depends on Population
Asbestos - 9 years
Very demanding rules on record keeping, sample preservation, etc.

--Coagulation--
Coagulant neutralizes some of the charges
Occurs in less than a second
Try to mix chemical in 30 sec or less
--Flocculation--
Not much chemical activity
Gentle stirring
Particles collide and grow
30 minutes
End up 1/2" particles 
--Sedimentation--
Water has to be still - 1 foot/min
Settling - 2 to 6 hrs
A possible problem - short circuits (detected with dye test)...
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