Whap Chapter 30 Outline

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Chapter 30: The Americas in the Age of Independence Outline

I. The Building of American States
A. The United States: Westward Expansion and Civil War
* Almost all adult white men eligible to participate in political affairs of republic and vote by 1820s 1. Westward Expansion and Manifest Destiny * After American Revolution, British ceded to new republic all lands between Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River * U.S. doubled in size

* Napoleon Bonaparte allowed U.S. to purchase France’s Louisiana Territory (extended from Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains * U.S. doubled in size again
* By 1840s, westward expansion was well underway
* “Manifest destiny”, the United States was destined, even divinely ordained, to expand across the North American continent from Atlantic seaboard to Pacific and beyond * invoked to justify U.S. annexations

2. Conflict with Indigenous Peoples
* Followed westward expansion; people resisted efforts to push them from ancestral lands and hunting grounds * Indian Removal act of 1830 moved all native Americans west of Mississippi River into “Indian Territory” * affected Seminoles from the east

* Cherokees suffered 800-mile migration from eastern woodlands to Oklahoma on Trail of Tears (1838-1839) * thousands died from disease, starvation, and difficulties of location * Native Americans on plains ultimately lost war against forces of U.S. expansionism (despite occasional successes) * U.S. massacre at Wounded Knee Creak in 1890

* Sioux man accidentally shot off gun; cavalry overreacted slaughtering more than 200 men, women, and children with machine guns * Represented place where “a people’s dream died,” as later a native leader put it

3. The Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
* Westward expansion generated tension between U.S. and Mexico (territories included Texas, California, and New Mexico) * Moves that led to war
* Texas declared independence in 1836 b/c many U.S. migrants who had settled wanted to run their own affairs * U.S. accepted Texas as new state in 1845 and moved to consolidate hold on territory * U.S. instigated war then inflicted punishing defeat on Mexican army * By Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848), U.S. took possession of approx. ½ of Mexico’s territory, paying 15 million dollars in exchange for Texas north of Rio Grande, Cali, and New Mexico * westward expansion also created problem by aggravating tensions between regions and raising question of whether settlers could extend slavery to newly acquired territories * slavery most serious and divisive issue

4. Sectional Conflict
* North v.s. South over slavery
* Invigoration of slave system by rise of cotton as cash crop in early 19th century * As numbers of slavery grew, antislavery forces fought to limit slavery spreading to new territories * Missouri Compromise of 1820, a series of political compacts attempted to maintain a balance between slave and free states as republic admitted new states carved out of western territories * Compromises proved too brittle to endure; proslavery and slavery forces became strident * Presidential election of Abraham Lincoln sparked war between the states (1861-1865) * Lincoln considered slavery as immoral and committed to free soil – territories without slavery

5. The U.S. Civil War
* 11 southern states withdrew from the Union in 1860 and 1861, affirming their right to dissolve the Union and their support for states’ rights * Slavery and cultivation of cotton as cash crop isolated southern states from economic developments in rest of U.S. * Southern states, world’s major source of cotton (bulk of crops went to British isles) * Considered themselves to be self-sufficient and believed they didn’t need rest of U.S. * Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation made abolition an explicit goal of the war *...
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