Whap Chapter 19 Notes

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Ch. 19: Early Latin America
Introduction
-During the 15th+16th centuries, Spain and Portugal colonized the Americas •Colonies were dependent (unlike Russia’s expansion)
-Created economic dependency on W w/ lasing effects
Colonies maintained special contact w/ W (like Russia)
-But Russia could decide what to borrow; colonies had W forms imposed •Superior tech., horses, and disease allowed conquerors to dominate natives •Social hierarchy changed by intermarriage of natives+Europeans and African slaves •Both Europeans and natives tried to maintain original way of life •European exploitation-plantations worked/precious metals mined through forced labor

Spaniards and Portuguese: From Reconquest to Conquest
-The Spaniards and Portuguese came from societies long in contact w/ other ppls •Many inhabitants during history; frontier between Christianity and Islam -Conflictstrong tradition of military conquest+rule over culturally diff. ppls •Christian kingdoms by 15th century-Portugal on coast, Aragon in E Spain, Castile in center -Political and religious unification under Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille •Fall of Granada (last Muslims kingdom) in 1492Christian control of Iberian Peninsula -Isabella ordered Jews to convert/leaveJews leftdisrupted Castilian economy -Isabella and Ferdinand also supported Christopher Columbus

-Iberian Society and Tradition
Spanish and Portuguese forms exported to the Americas
-Spanish and Portuguese are very urbanurban setting exported to New World -Commoners who came to America tried to become new nobility w/ Indian serfs -Patriarchal household trait imposed on plantations

-Large estates+encomiendas (grants of laborers)economic dominance by Europeans -Use of African slaves (unlike most of Europe) brought to Americas -Bureaucracy+church served as foundations of Iberian politics; also brought over -Portuguese merchants est. extensive colonies in Atlantic islandsmore slave trade; same thing in Brazil -The Chronology of Conquest

Spanish and Portuguese conquest+colonization of Americas in 3 periods -1st-Conquest from 1492-~1570-Main administration+economy est. -2nd-Consolidation from~1570-~1700-Colonial institutions and societies became defined -3rd-Reform during 18th century intensified colonial dependence; eventually led to revolt •Period from 1492 to~1570/1600 was very destructive/constructinve -Large amts. of territory and ppl brought under European control -Bases of economic system of dependency est.; flow of immigration+commerce -Destruction/transformations of Indian societies; introduction of African slaves -Mexico+Peru became focus of initial colonization

-The Caribbean Crucible
After Christopher Columbus’s voyage in 1492…
-1493-Expedition est. colony of Santo Dominigo (Hispaniola)
-Expeditions from Santo DominigoPuerto Rico (1508), Cuba (1511), -Settlements in Panama and N coast of S America by 1513
-Similar stuff in Brazil under the Portuguese
Taino Indians provided enough labor to be distributed to individual Spaniards in grants -Gold hunting, slaving, and European diseasesdepopulation of Caribbean -Major ports in Caribbean, but it became colonial backwater until sugar and slaves allowed resurgence •Caribbean served Spain as a testing ground for colonization -Iberian-style cities had to be adapted to Americas; Spanish cities set-up according to a grid plan -Royal administration-Bureaucracy and law code developed based on Spain’s+American exp. -Church missionaries came and spread Roman Catholicism

-Merchants regulated provisions and commerce
Immigration+importation of slavesshift from conquest to settlement -Early gold-hunting attempts replaced by est. of plantations -Settlementdepopulation of Indiansimportation of slaves for labor -Destruction of Indians expeditions went further toward mainland from island to island -Mistreatment of natives attempts to help from priests+admins •By time of conquest of Mexico and Peru,...
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