* Tanakh – The Hebrew Bible; “Old Testament”, Jewish scriptures that consist of 24 books split into three divisions * The Torah
* Torah - "Teaching", "Instruction", the first five books of the Hebrew scriptures; also the additional instructions of God, believed by many to have been transmitted orally from Moses through a succession of teachers and rabbis. * Genesis
* Abraham – “Father” of the Hebrew people, original patriarch; the first to receive God’s promise * Moses – The greatest prophet of Israel, who led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and into the promised land of Canaan, and who received from God on Mt. Sinai the Law on which the Israelite covenant with God is Based *
* Monotheism – the belief and worship of only one God
* Covenant - Contract/bond; shown in Genesis with Adam and Eve & Noah and God; a personal, solemn promise of faithful love that involves mutual commitments and creates a sacred relationship. A legal term denoting a formal and legally binding declaration of benefits to be given by one party to another, with or without conditions attached. * Yahweh – “the one who is”; God, Jehovah
* Polis - A Greek city-state; the fundamental political unit of ancient Greece after about 750 B.C. * Vir - manliness, courage, excellence, strength, bravery * Telos - Goal directedness, everything has a purpose, everything should/wants to move toward perfection. The "end," "final state," or "goal" of a process. Aristotle: action "for the end" * Hubris – arrogance, excessive pride or self-confidence * Ex. Antigone: downfall of Creon - put himself above everything including gods and city * Sappho - Performed publicly, music accompaniment, unique woman, love poems for another woman, same sex desire is unusual for Greek upper class. * sweet red apple: girls virginity untouchable to men until marriage * "i simply want to die": marriage: security, political rise, love, children...love has nothing to do with marriage, men don't understand love because all they care about is sex * Tragedy - A serious story or drama in which the protagonist begins happily and ends in misery. The process of coping with adversity and accepting misfortune elevates the stature of the human being who is the tragic hero; produced as part of a religious festival to Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility. * Catharsis - According to Aristotle, a "purging" or release from the emotions of pity and fear that have been aroused in an audience watching a tragedy. * Epic Poetry - Narrative poetry, usually told or written in an elevated style, that recounts the life of a hero. Begins in mediares, invocation of the muse, catalouges, epithets, epic similies, panoramic views. Example: The Aeneid * Chorus – group of 15 men that acted as one character in a play, they moved and sang together; set the mood, sometimes sided with one character, warned of danger * Polynices – character in Antigone; eldest son of Oedipus and Jocasta, brother of Antigone and Ismene. Fought with his brother, Eteocles, over throne which Eteocles won when they decided that each would alternate every year for king. Creon ordered for his body to be left on plain outside of city to rot and be eaten by animals. Antigone buries him. * Haemon - Antigone's fiancé, Creon's son, kills himself when he finds Antigone dead after trying to reason with his father. * Stoicism - Happiness can only be achieved by accepting life’s ups and downs as the products of unalterable destiny * Ancient Greek philosophy; argued that we cannot control things that are beyond us; therefore, it is of no use to let emotions that come about as a result of those external things control us; in being immune to emotions, we can be truly free and can remain calm...