* Known as the hungry 40’s
* Industrialization sweeps over Europe
* Railroad transforms the world and makes the world “smaller” because news got around quicker * France – 1830-1848 – “july monarchy” Louis Philippe is a bourgeois monarch. The bourgeoisie benefitted from him because of Liberalism * French workers started to get pushed into the streets because of food shortages and rising prices * In fear of violence, the royal family flees and goes to England * After the July Monarchy collapses, France becomes a republic, 2nd French Republic * In 1848 France gives universal manhood suffrage, French citizens had right to vote * Louis Napoleon Bonaparte: nephew of Napoleon, he comes to France and promises to restore stability and make France great again, becomes president of the 2nd French Republic * 1851-1852 – 2nd French republic is abolished, and France becomes 2nd French Empire * Louis Napoleon becomes Napoleon III
* During the 18th century the capital of Prussia was Berlin, it was becoming a military power and was becoming very powerful * Prussia was built upon two foundations: the army, and service nobility * The name of the Prussian nobility is Junker (yunkers)
* Hohenzollern, dynasty of Prussia
* After 1815, Prussia acquired German further lands along the Rhineland * The middle classes start wanting Liberalism, they want free trade, and constitution and a parliament, Prussia had none of these * The Prussian King Frederick William IV still believed he was serving God not the people * The vast majority of people were peasants, “Mob”, they were starting to get violent * King Frederick William IV fled to Vienna to get away from the violence * Habsberg, dynasty of Austria
* Francis Joseph is the King of Austria
* The middle class wants a constitution and parliament. Joseph gives it to them, he ends serfdom * People revolt in Austria, but the Austrian army could not put them down, he calls up the Tsar in Russia, Nicholas I part of the Romanov dynasty in Russia * Prussian army crushes the revolution in Prussia
* Constitutions and Parliaments are granted in Prussia and Austria, but they are limited * King of Prussia and Austrian emperor are still in power * Karl Marx emerges….
* Socialism is based on a more equal distribution of wealth, more just society, better living conditions, better working conditions, * Socialism becomes legitimate by the end of the 19th century because the people help it succeed and do not rebel * Karl Marx was born into a middle class family
* Karl Marx is against Capitalism, calls the middle class the Proletariat, they are repressed and being held down because of industrialization * He suggests workers to rise up and revolt to over throw capitalism, leads to his Communist Manifesto tells people in every nation to revolt * Marx writes a book called Das Kapital or UnCapital
* Marxism advocates the violent over throw of capitalism, advocates a classless society, and abolition of private property. * Hagel- German philosopher, explained metaphysical aspects of the world. * Marx was a materialist,
* the bourgeoisie came out on top after the French revolution and the overthrow of feudalism. * Capitalism benefits the bourgeoisie. This is against Marx’s views. * Vanguard of the Proletariat – overthrow’s the bourgeoisie, they get rid of private property and create a classless society * 1917 – 1991 Russia, first successful Marxist revolution. Most people were peasants. Never achieved communism, and never was fully a classless society. Vladimir Lenin assigned the vanguard of the proletariat to the communist party. These people had better lives. The communist party was a privileged class * 1949 – present China, second successful Marxist revolution, most people were peasants. Becoming wealthy and is now becoming a capitalist economy. Middle...