Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body. False The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium. False Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of the body. True Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients.False The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalamus.True Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus.True It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions. False Water imbalance, in which output exceeds intake, causing an imbalance in body fluids, is termed dehydration. True Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, feces, and urine. True Hypoproteinemia reflects a condition of unusually high levels of plasma proteins and causes tissue edema. False Although the sodium content of the body may be altered, its concentration in the ECF remains stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume. True Sodium is pivotal to fluid and electrolyte balance and to the homeostasis of all body systems. True When aldosterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorption cannot occur beyond the collecting tube.True Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorption of sodium while enhancing potassium secretion. True Pressure diuresis decreases blood volume and blood pressure. True Aldosterone is secreted in response to low extracellular potassium. False To remain properly hydrated, water intake must equal water output. True The main way the kidney regulates potassium ions is to excrete them. True Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasodilation and potassium and water retention. False Premenstrual edema may be due to enhanced reabsorption of sodium chloride. True Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal. True Hypercalcemia causes muscle tetany. False
The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium are pituitary hormone and calcitonin. False Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are low.False The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45.TrueMost acidic substances (hydrogen ions) originate as by-products of cellular metabolism. True Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they partially dissociate.TrueThe phosphate buffer system is relatively unimportant for buffering blood plasma. True The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system. True One of the most powerful and plentiful sources of buffers is the protein buffer system.True As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases. True Regulation of the acid-base system is accomplished mainly through respiratory control, and the kidneys also play a small role. False Severe damage to the respiratory system rarely will result in acid-base imbalances. False Respiratory acidosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient. True Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis. True
Thirst is always a reliable indicator of body water need. False Blood acidity results in depression of the CNS, whereas blood alkalosis results in overexcitement of the CNS. True 1) The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions? A) calcium ions
B) potassium ions
C) hydrogen ions
D) sodium ions
2) The term hypotonic hydration refers to ________.
A) the feeling one might have after a long swim
B) the unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much liquor C) a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water D) a condition that is...