[Vocab Theo Chủ Đề] Marriage - Family - Love

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u VOCABULARY

IN THE SAME SERIES Editor: Richard Hudson

Patricia Ashby Speech Sounds Edward Carney English Spelling Jonathan Culpeper History of English Nigel Fabb Sentence Structure John Haynes Style Richard Hudson Word Meaning Richard Hudson English Grammar Jean Stilwell Peccei Child Language Raphael Salkie Text and Discourse Analysis R. L. Trask Language Change Peter Trudgill Dialects

VOCABULARY

Laurie Bauer

London and New York

First published 1998 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2001. © 1998 Laurie Bauer All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Bauer, Laurie, 1949– Vocabulary / Laurie Bauer. p. cm – (Language workbooks) ISBN 0–415–16398–6 (pbk.) 1. Vocabulary–Problems, exercises, etc. I. Title. II. Series. PE1449.B348 1998 428.1–dc21 97-39921 CIP ISBN 0–415–16398–6 ISBN 0-203-02605-5 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-17367-8 (Glassbook Format)

For Keith and Ingrid

CONTENTS

Using this book Acknowledgements 1 The magic of words 2 Vocabulary statistics 3 Borrowing 4 New words from English 1: compounds 5 New words from English 2: derivatives 6 Meaning relationships 7 Formal relationships 8 Stylish words 9 Technical words 10 Where words come from: etymology 11 Words that change their meanings

viii x 1 7 14 19 25 30 36 41 46 50 56 62 69 71 87

12 Dictionaries 13 Where next? Answers to exercises Index

VII

USING THIS BOOK

Vocabulary is about words – where they come from, how they change, how they relate to each other and how we use them to view the world. You have been using words since before your second birthday to understand the wishes of others and to make your own wishes and feelings known. Here you will be asked to consider words in an objective manner – while remembering that objectivity should not exclude a certain amount of entertainment. Chapters 1 and 2 provide some general background on the power and mystique of words and on the numbers of words we deal with in our everyday lives. One of the things about words is that we keep meeting new ones: as society changes we gain new words like download or AIDS and lose old ones like barouche or reefer. In Chapters 3, 4 and 5 we ask where the new words come from. Chapters 6 and 7 view words from two complementary angles: their meaning and their shape (shape being either their sound-shape or their spelling-shape). In Chapters 8 and 9 we go on to see how different words are used in different contexts and to try to work out the meanings of some of the very technical words we find in English. In Chapters 10 and 11 we look at the origins of words and how words change their meanings. And in Chapter 12 we take a brief look at dictionaries, the ultimate word-books. All of this is an attempt to give you some kind of over-view of the fascination of words. But in a book of this size, it must be recognised that not everything can be covered. Some of the points which are not fully discussed in this book are covered – or are covered in more detail – in other books in the same series. Richard Hudson’s book on Word Meaning and Richard Coates’s on Word Structure deal in much more detail with things which are mentioned here, but about which a great deal more might be said. I do not here look at words as markers of regional identity (where does someone who calls a young cat a kittling come from?), at place names or personal names, at the...
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