Vertebrate Zoology Study Guide

Topics: Fish anatomy, Recapitulation theory, Cell Pages: 7 (1790 words) Published: January 13, 2013
Vertebrate Zoology Study Guide
I. Taxonomy

1. Reasons for Taxonomy
a. means of providing a systematic framework with which to work when studying the varied life forms inhabiting this earth b. establishes order from chaos
c. Provides a system of nomenclature with which you label items (organisms) d. necessary when imagining trying to gather information on an unfamiliar organism e. Meant to provide a useful, convenient system using all evolutionary, adaptational, and anatomical aspects to classify

2. Carl Linnaeus: Swedish Scientist (1707-1778)
a. first person to truly systemize taxonomy
b. identified 236 different animal species, although classification based largely on morphology (based on structure) c. lead to “inspiring” the study of classification

3. Factors used in Classification
a. system=hierarchial
b. must be able to discriminate among different types of organisms, must provide the criteria for the discriminations, must have the capacity for grouping smaller taxa/ taxon in larger, more inclusive taxa ( a hierarchial position (s) within a taxonomy) c. Artificial classification classes according to superficial resemblance (structure, color, habitat, etc. ) d. method used in zoology and biology is called natural classification e. Law of priority ( after a species has been described, defined, and illustrated) : any identification of a previously named species takes second priority, even if the new name if “more correct” f. rules/ factors based on Linnaeus’ Systema Naturae of 1758 ( *the factors and rules for nomenclature were established by the International Congress of Zoology in 1901 (the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature)*

II. Evolutionary Advancements

1. Multicellular condition
a. cell number distinction increasingly important over the last few years b. Kingdom’s Protista and Monera mainly unicellular organisms c. Unicellular and multicellular organisms employ different methods to carry out life processes d. Example: the amoeba (unicellular) may regulate fluid levels by pinocytosis and water expulsion vesicles. A man must go through a much more complex process through numerous body structures to achieve the same ends. e. Cell number= quick indication of gross similarity/ difference

2. Coelem
a. the presence of a coelem is another animalian characteristic useful in taxonomy. b. Coelem=true body cavity, usually located in the area between the digestive tubes ( and other organs) and the outer wall of the animal c. Significance- permits relatively large size and complexity by creating greater surface area exposure, allowing diffusional and osmotic processes more chance to occur d. acoelemata (animals without a coelem)- jellyfish and flatworms e. Eucoelomata (animals with a coelem) thought of as “tube within a tube”; develops between somatic (outer) and visceral (inner) mesoderm lined with peritoneum f. Hemocoel (coelem where blood sloshes around, primitive circulatory system)-Mollusca, Arthropoda, Onychophora, etc. g. Pseudocoel (peritoneumless coelem)

h. Coelem of the earthworm broken into chambers/ septa.

3. Triptoblastic (can only occur in multicellular organism) a. Triptoblastic- having three germ layers (endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm)- all other high level organisms b. Dipoblastic (endoderm, ectoderm)- coelentarata

4. Cephalization
a. Cephalization: when at the oral end, there exists a concentration of nervous tissues within a head b. cephalic, polar organism: has differentiation along longitudinal axis c. represents the most efficient means of reacting to most environments d. as complexity increases, animal tend to move unidirectionally e. visual area is vastly increased for erect or semierect terrestrial animals

5. Specialization of Organs and Organ Systems
a. Digestive tract: meant to process food and allow food to pass through where nutrients absorbed and waste secreted; porifera have no digestive cavity at all, enterozoa...
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