Ush Chapter 5-6

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Chapters 5-6

1869: Central Pacific and Union Pacific complete the transcontinental railroad

1870: Red Cloud, chief of the Oglala Sioux, states his people's case in Washington DC

1876: Alexander Graham invents the telephone

1877: Munn vs Illinois establishes government regulation of railroads

1877: Mother Jones supports the Great Strike of 1877

1879: Thomas A. Edison invents a workable light bulb

1880: James Garfield is elected president

1881: Garfield is assassinated. Chester Arthur becomes president

1884: Grover Cleveland is elected president

1886: Haymarket riot turns public sentiment against unions

1889: Oklahoma opened for settlement; the land rush begins

1890: Sioux are massacred at Wounded Knee

1890: Congress passes the Sherman Antitrust Act

1893: Diminished US gold reserve triggers the panic of 1893

1894: President Cleveland sends federal troops to Illinois to end the Pullman strike

1896: William McKinley is elected president

1896: William Jennings Bryan runs for president

1900: William McKinley is reelected

Westward Expansion

Native Americans vs. Settlers
:Sand Creek
:Cheyenne thought they were under protection of the US gov.
:General S.R. Curtis - want to peace until Indians suffer more 1868 - killed over 150 inhabitants

:Little Bighorn
:Bozeman Trail ran directly through Sioux hunting grounds in the Bighorn Mountains :Sioux chief: Red Cloud - unsuccessfully w/ gov. abt white settlement :December 1866 Crazy Horse --> Captain William J. Fetterman @ Lodge Trail Ridge

Battle of Hundred Slain
Whites call it "Fetterman Massacre"

:Custer 1874 - Black Hill has gold --> gold rush
:1876 - Crazy Horse, Gall, Sitting Bull vs Custer's troops (Custer dead, lost) :Late 1876: Sioux beaten --> Sitting Bull to Canada --> surrender for ppl's starvation

:1868 Treaty
:Treaty of Fort Laramie
:Gov - close the Bozeman Trail
:Sioux agreed to live on a reservation along the Missouri River :Sitting Bull never signed it (Hunkpapa Sioux)

:Sitting Bull
:Never signed Treaty of Fort Laramie

:Assimilation
:A plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture

:Dawes Act
:1887 - "Americanize" the N.A.
:Broke up reservations and gave some of the reservations to individual N.A.s - 160 acres to each head of household & 80 acres to unmarried adult :Sell remainder of the reservations to settlers --> resulting income would be used by the N.A. to buy farm implements :1932 - whites took ⅔ of territory (which had be for N.A.) :In the end: N.A. got no money from the sale of the lands

:Ghost Dance
:Sioux desperation --> ritual - N.A. lands and way of life would be restored :Spread rapidly
:Alarmed military leaders - order arrest of Sitting Bull (Dec. 1890) :Sitting Bull killed

:Battle of Wounded Knee
:December 1890 the Seventh Cavalry - Custer's old regiment - put 350 starving/freezing Sioux to a camp @ Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota :Force N.A. give up their weapons
:Shot fired (don't know which side)
:Seventh Cavalry killed 300 unarmed N.A.
:Brought the Indian wars to a bitter end

:The Cowboy Culture
:Cattle becomes big business
:Longhorns - sturdy, short-tempered breeds accustomed to the dry grasslands of southern Spain :Not in great demand until the railroads reached Great Plains :25% African American, 12 Mexican
:Nonstop Work 10-14 hrs a day (ranch) , 14 or more (trail)
:Expert rider and roper
:Sprint roundup start season
:Herded all the longhorns they could find --> penned them --> cattle gets so hungry --> run away --> sort through the herd --> claiming the cattle marked the cattles with the brand of the ranch/ calves that still need to be branded --> trail boss chose a crow for the long drive :Long Drive

:Overland transport of the animals (~3 months)
:Cowboy in the saddle dawn~dusk
:Slept on the ground and bathed in rivers
:Risked death and loss every day of...
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