1. What are the functions of the urinary system?
a. Filter blood to allow toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions to leave body via urination b. Regulate volume and chemical makeup of the blood
c. Maintain proper balance between water and salts, acids and bases d. Gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting
e. Production of renin to help regulate BP and erythropoietin to stimulate RBC production f. Activation of Vitamin D (from PTH)
2. Describe the gross anatomy of the urinary system (including the location within the body) – kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Kidneys – retroperitoneal in position in the superior lumbar region; right kidney sits lower than left due to crowding by liver 3. Describe the microscopic anatomy of the urinary system (especially the type of epithelium). 4. What is a nephron? What is the difference between the two types of nephrons? g. Nephron – structural and functional units that form urine h. Types
i. Cortical nephrons – makes up 85% of nephrons; located in cortex ii. Juxtamedullary nephrons – located at the cortex-medulla junction; have long loops of Henle that deeply invade the medulla; have extensive thin segments; involved with production of concentrated urine 5. Identify the different parts of the nephron and describe the major function or processes that occur within each part. 6. What are the normal constituents eliminated in the urine? How is pH altered by the kidney? 7. There are several hormones that have a big impact on the kidney. What is the action of each (renin, angiotensin 1 and 2, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone)? 8. What makes up the cortex of the kidney? The medulla?
9. What in the world is the juxtoglomerular apparatus? What does it do and why? 10. Starting with the renal artery and ending with the renal vein – what are the blood vessels that travel...