Understand the neurology of dementia
1.1 Describe a range of causes of dementia syndrome
Fixed cognitive impairments are due to a single event. Traumatic brain injury may cause generalized damage to the white matter of the brain or localized damages. A temporary reduction in the supply of blood and oxygen to the brain may lead to this type of dementia. A stroke or brain infection can also be the cause of dementia. Excessive alcoholic intake results in alcoholic dementia. Use of recreational drugs cause substance induced dementia. Once the over use of these drugs are stopped he impairment persists but may not progress. Dementia which begins gradually and worsens progressively over several years is usually caused by neurodegenerative disease; that is, by conditions affecting only or primarily the neurons of the brain and causing gradual but irreversible loss of function of these cells. Less commonly, a non-degenerative condition may have secondary effects on brain cells, which may or may not be reversible if the condition is treated. The causes of dementia depend on the age at which symptoms begin. In the elderly population, a large majority of cases of dementia are caused by Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or both. It is rare to have dementia in young people, Among youngsters also the major dementia observed is Alzheimer's disease. People who are affected by frequent head trauma, like boxers and football players are risk of dementia. Other than alcohol, drugs and psychiatric reasons certain genetic disorders also can cause dementia.
1.2 Describe the types of memory impairment commonly experienced by individuals with dementia The memory impairment may result in lack of attention, forgetting language, forgetting names and identity of friends and relatives and lose of ability to solve problems. Disorientation another effect of dementia. In this case the patient forgets the direction, the time (date, month and year) and everything about the self.
1.3 Explain the way that individuals process information with reference to the abilities and limitations of individuals with dementia A person who care a dementia patient need to learn a totally different language, to understand what is the requirement of the patient, which is different for different individual depending on the behavior, age and the stage of the illness. If hungry the patient may express it by biting the finger, trying to eat anything nearby, showing restlessness or by simply crying. In most cases the patient may show some kind of signal or symbol to express their feelings/requirement. But in case of certain patients they just become restless or cry every time they want some attention. It is very important to compile individual process information describing the minutest signs shown by the patient to understand what they want. A person to person information must be documented and proper communication must be maintained between different health care providers on an individual basis. Individual process information must contain all the details of the person affected by dementia including the level sensual organs and the level of
short time and long time memory
1.4 Explain how other factors can cause changes in an individual’s condition that may not be attributable to dementia Medications can sometimes lead to reactions or side effects that mimic dementia. These dementia-like effects can occur in reaction to just one drug or they can result from drug interactions. They may have a rapid onset or they may develop slowly over time. Nutritional deficiencies (like vitamin B1 due to heavy drinking) and dehydration can cause dementia like syndromes. Subdural hematomas, or bleeding between the brain's surface and its outer covering (the dura), can cause dementia-like symptoms and changes in mental function. Poisoning, brain tumor, heart and lungs function disorder can also show dementia like syndromes....