extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it
into useful work.
2. Wind Turbines
3. Water Turbines
4. Gas Turbines
It is a device that extracts thermal
energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do
mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
The steam turbine is a form of heat
engine that derives much of its improvement in
thermodynamic efficiency through the use of
multiple stages in the expansion of the steam,
which results in a closer approach to the ideal
- The steam turbine system is used to
create over 80 percent of the world's electricity
- Steam turbines were also used to
create motion in locomotives. The kinetic energy
of the turbines was converted into turning force
to drive the locomotive wheels.
- Steam ships use the same principle
as locomotion production to power a ship. The
raw materials for the steam are burnt and the
heat produced is used to create steam from a
water boiler. The steam turns the turbine and
the kinetic energy is used to turn the propellers
of the ship and move the ship through the water.
A wind turbine is a device that
converts kinetic energy from the wind, also
called wind energy into mechanical energy; a
- . If the mechanical energy is used
to produce electricity, the device may be
called wind turbine or wind power plant
- If the mechanical energy is used
to drive machinery, such as for grinding grain
or pumping water, the device is called a
windmill or wind pump.
- Similarly, it may be called wind
charger when it is used to charge batteries.
A water turbine converts energy
in the form of falling water into rotating
shaft power. Flowing water is directed on to
the blades of a turbine runner, creating a
force on the blades. Since the runner is
spinning, the force acts through a distance.
In this way, energy is transferred from the
water flow to the turbine
- used to produce hydro-electric
power at dams.
- Water Turbines use water from
irrigation races, drainage channels, streams,
rivers or diversions from lakes and rivers to
create energy, which is then used for
pumping water in any location.
is a type of internal combustion
engine. It has an upstream rotating compressor
coupled to a downstream turbine, and a
combustion chamber in-between. A gas turbine
combusts natural gas or diesel fuel for use in
remote locations or where a large backup
power supply is required.
- gas turbine drives compressors for
pumping natural gas through pipelines, where
a small part of the pumped gas serves as the
- A gas turbine can also be
incorporated in an oil refining process called
the Houdry process, in which pressurized air is
passed over a catalyst to burn off accumulated
carbon. The hot gases then drive a turbine
directly without a combustion chamber.
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or
gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps
operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or
rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work
by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy
sources, including manual operation, electricity, an engine of some type, or wind power.
1. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
2. RECIPROCATING PUMPS
3. ROTARY PUMPS
Pumps add energy to the liquid by
either of two methods, centrifugal force or
positive displacement. Centrifugal pumps
use a rotating impeller with multiple
vanes as shown here. The liquid enters
the impeller axially at the smaller diameter,
called the impeller eye, and progresses
radially between the vanes
The multiple diffuser design is
Primarily used in Multistage pumps since the
circular collector is then used to direct the
flow to the inlet of the next impeller. This
sectional drawing shows a six stage pump
where the discharge from each impeller is...