History of Indian Budget
India's first Finance Minister Sir R.K. Shanmugham Chetty, presented the first Finance Budget of independent India on November 26, 1947. Since then, 28 differentUnion Finance Ministers have been presenting the budget year after year. Initially, major attention was paid towards the agriculture sector but as the economy evolved, the focus shifted from agriculture to other sectors like industrial, financial etc.
During the early the fifties, Indian budget highlights revolved around the public sector and public finance and hence, back then - taxation, inflation, public savings etc were much talked about topics. This trend continued till the finance budget 1985-86.
The change in the approach began with Mr. Manmohan Singh who served as the Union Finance Minister under the leadership of Mr. P.V. Narsimha Rao. Mr. Singh was instrumental in headstarting the new phase of economic liberalization. He reduced the control of Government over public sector units through disinvestment. The liberalization process which he started years back is still followed and is seen in interim budget and Indian budget announcements every year. This year also live union budget 2011 will be announced by Pranab Mukherjee.
* First Finance Minister: Shanmugham Chetty
* Number of Finance Minister Since Independence: 28
* Maximum Number of Budgets Presented by: Morarji Desai
* Economic Liberalization Started by: Mr. Manmohan Singh ( Finance Minister 1991) * Current Finance Minister: Mr. P.Chidambaram
Explain the different types of budgets in detail, with the help of suitable examples. In every business planning is the most important function to perform. Planning of different firms depends upon so many factors. Planning is done for comparing the actual performance with standard performance. Budgets are also prepared in advance. Budgets are prepared to check the availability of finance according to the demand of project. So budgetary control is also essential tool of management to control cost and maximizes profits. Meaning of budget: A budget is a detail plan of operations for a specific period of time. In the present era everyone is with the term budget because it essential in life. A budget is prepared for the effective utilization of resources, which will help in achieving the set objectives. Budgets are also very important in individual life, as it is important in business firms. The following are the essential of budget: (a) It is prepared in advance and is based on future plan of action. (b) It relates to a future period and is based on objectives to be attained. (c) It is a statement expressed in monetary or physical unit prepared for the formulation of policy.
Types of budgets.
1. Functional basis of budgets.
a. Sales budget: Sales budget is the primary budget. It is the most important budget to prepare and the other budgets are prepared on the basis of sales budget. In this budget the in charge or expert forecast the future expected sales of the firm. The sales manager is responsible for the accuracy of the budget. The sales budgets may prepare on basis of product, type of customers, salesman, locality etc. for the preparation of sales budget the following things should be take under care like past sales, sales man estimates, plant capacity, raw material, orders in hand, seasonal fluctuations, competition etc. USES: Sales budget is the most important budget while making the overall budget for the organization for a fiscal year. It is important in this sense that how would anybody make fiscal budget for organization if he don't know about how much to sale or what are the organization's sale would be. If you know the sales volume of units of product you want to sale in a fiscal year then you will make production budget according to that sales requirement in mind you will have production information in mind you will purchase raw material, hire labour according to...
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