Turkish History

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WEEK 9.YOUNG TURKS
* Tıbbiye students formed Ottoman Unity Society, laters some members joined CUP_Committe of Unity and progress. * Started against Abdulhamid’s absolute regime (istibdad). Supporting the westernizationed and modernizations. * Many member of the Y.O were educated in Western style school of Ottoman Empire, however these members are lower ranking bureaucrats and student of royal colleges. * Baski yonetimine karsi kendi aralarinda kurduklari birlikle mucadele baslayan grup CUP’nin temellerini olusturmaktadir. * CUP leaders represented themselves as directors of not only of a distinct group political organization but also of a much larger ideological movement. * Abdulhamit II used the term “agiator” (fesat,tahrikçi) for Young Turks. * CUP realized that they were fighting against the absolute regime. Namık kemal said that it is impossible to eliminate liberty by opression and cruelty. * They represented modernist wing of Ottoman Empire. They regarded themselves as the natural heirs of the reformist movement. * They demanded Ottoman Empire install Western institutions. “there is only 1 civilization, that is European civilization.” For Young Turks, European civilization was essentially synonymous with “contemporary science.” CONCEPTS

1. SCIENCE:
* Popular science and materalism were main support of Young Turks Royal Medical School, birthplace of CUP. * Young Turks gave no credit to reconcile western civilization and science with Islam and traditional ways. * Science articles were published in journals. Science is their way of thinking. They wanted replace religion with science. Royal medical school played important role to set a ground for materialist and antireligious ideas. * Students read from Darwins’s work so they saw the difference between nature and religion. Belief in god was harshly criticized. They were impressed by Bucher who says religion is considered obstacle to human progress. * Abdulhamid II perceived Young Turks as atheist denying existence of God. * Positivism: Their aim was to explain everything with science and experiment. (ispatlanan seylere inanmak, guvenmek) They were influenced by scientific materialism Claud Bernand, Raspail, Buchner. These event caused to birth of scientific ideas, antireligious activities, elitism.

2. MERIT

* Youngs Turks wanted to replace Sultan’s neopatrimanial system with modern bureaucracy. * Abdulhamit wanted to be single patrimonal leader ruling. * Spying practices were being done during his reign. Lower ranking officials submit spy reports. * Young Turks understood they were unable to rise within bureaucratic ranks because of the sultan’s neopatrimonial regime. * They opposed appoinments on basis of loyalty rather than merit. * They requested for the all state jobs to be appointed based on merit not only loyalty. * Ideal society relying on merit was their dream.

* Their ideas about merit was stem from the SOCIAL DARWINISM- survival of the fittest, socially most capable one will be top of the society. (bu dusunce daha sonra Elitism fikrinin dogmasina neden olacak)

3. CONSTITUTIONALISM
* Young-Turks revolution proclaimed the restoration of Ottoman Constitution. * But this constitution provided no foundation for a parlimentary system. Otoman constitution was an unsuccessful device. * After Abdulhamit closed the parliament and even mention of the constitution became a ground for exile. Constitutionalism and representative government seemed valueless to Young Turks. * Parliament was nothing more than a heterogeneous crowd. * O.E’s constitution was quite different than EU’s constitution. Because in O.E this constitution was prepared by only few statesmen. * They thought that constitution was a solution to be far away from the intervention of Great Powers into O.E.

4. ELITISM
* Young Turks believed that they have more right to rule others....
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