Trends in Hiv Prevalence

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  • Topic: HIV, AIDS, HIV/AIDS
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PRESENTATION ON:
THE TRENDS IN HIV/AIDS PREVALENCE

PRESENTED BY:
OLAMIJUWON EMMANUEL O. (0804080002)
DEPARTMENT OF DEMOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL STATISTICS
JOSEPH AYO BABALOLA UNIVERSITY, IKEJI ARAKEJI

PRESENTED TO:
THE-LECTURER-IN-CHARGE
DR(MRS) NTOIMO LORETTA F.C
DEPARTMENT OF DEMOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL STATISTICS
JOSEPH AYO BABALOLA UNIVERSITY, IKEJI ARAKEJI

PRESENTED ON:
THURSDAY 13TH DECEMBER, 2012

ABSTRACT
HIV prevalence in the world is becoming increasingly high. As of mid-1998, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to spread unequally around the world. In many cities in sub-Saharan African countries more than a quarter of young and middle-aged adults are infected with HIV, whereas in most developed countries, the number of annual AIDS cases continues to decrease. The status and of HIV epidemics in most other areas of the world remains uncertain because of inadequate data on the prevalence of HIV-risk behaviours. Hence, this paper presentation seeks to examine the trends of HIV prevalence across the world taking all the continents into consideration.

INTRODUCTION
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lentivirus, and like all viruses of this type, it attacks the immune system. Lentiviruses are in turn part of a larger group of viruses known as retroviruses. The name 'lentivirus' literally means 'slow virus' because they take such a long time to produce any adverse effects in the body. They have been found in a number of different animals, including cats, sheep, horses and cattle. However, the most interesting lentivirus in terms of the investigation into the origins of HIV is the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) that affects monkeys, which is believed to be at least 32,000 years old.

It is now generally accepted that HIV is a descendant of a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus because certain strains of SIVs bear a very close resemblance to HIV-1 and HIV-2, the two types of HIV.
HIV-2 for example corresponds to SIVsm, a strain of the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus found in the sooty mangabey (also known as the White-collared monkey), which is indigenous to western Africa.

The more virulent, pandemic strain of HIV, namely HIV-1, was until recently more difficult to place. Until 1999, the closest counterpart that had been identified was SIVcpz, the SIV found in chimpanzees. However, this virus still had certain significant differences from HIV

There are a number of factors that may have contributed to the sudden spread of HIV, most of which occurred in the latter half of the twentieth century and these includes: * Blood Transfusion

* Drug Use
* Mother-to-Child Transfusion

ORIGIN OF HIV
The origin of AIDS and HIV has puzzled scientists ever since the illness first came to light in the early 1980s. For over twenty years it has been the subject of fierce debate and the cause of countless arguments, with everything from a promiscuous flight attendant to a suspect vaccine programme being blamed.

The first recognized case of AIDS occurred in the USA in the early 1980s. A number of gay men in New York and California suddenly began to develop rare opportunistic infections and cancers that seemed stubbornly resistant to any treatment. At this time, AIDS did not yet have a name, but it quickly became obvious that all the men were suffering from a common syndrome.

The discovery of HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, was made soon after. While some were initially resistant to acknowledge the connection (and indeed some remain so today), there is now clear evidence to prove that HIV causes AIDS. So, in order to find the source of AIDS, it is necessary to look for the origin of HIV, and find out how, when and where HIV first began to cause disease in humans.

In February 1999 a group of researchers from the University of Alabama announced that they had found a type of SIVcpz that was almost identical to HIV-1. This particular strain was identified in a frozen sample taken from a...
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