Trauma Study Guide (Emt-B)

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1. Know different types of burns
– Superficial (1st degree)
o Involves only epidermis
o reddening with minor swelling
– Partial Thickness (2nd Degree)
o Epidermis burned though, dermis damaged
o Deep, intense pain
o Blisters and mottling
– Full Thickness (3rd Degree)
o All layers of skin burned
o Blackened areas surrounded by dry white patches – Electrical Burns
o Extent of tissue damage may be greater than what appears on the surface 2. Know treatment for different kinds of burns (chemical, thermal) – Thermal:
o Use sterile dressings
o Nerve apply ointments, sprays, or butters
o Do not break blisters
– Chemical
o Wash away chemicals with copious amounts of flowing water o If dry chemical, brush away, then flush with water o Remove Contaminated clothing
o Apply sterile dressings
o Treat for shock
3. Know how to calculate body surface area burned
– Rules of Nines
o Adult body divided into 11 main areas
o Each represent 9% of body surface
– Rule of Palms
o a hand represents 1%
4. Know treatment for suspected fracture
– Splint the body part and check for distal pulses 5. Know indications and contra-indications for MAST/PASG
– Indications
o Shock, Pelvic Fractures, bleeding in lower extremities – Contra-Indications
o Congestive Heart Failure
o Uncontrolled bleeding above the level of the pants o Impalement injury to the abdomen or lower extremities o Stroke
o Head injuries
6. Know indications and contra-indications for traction splint – Indications
o Closed Femur Fracture
– Contra-Indications
o Open femur fracture
7. Know “hyperventilation” rate for a head injury

8. Know musculoskeletal anatomy
– Cervical Vertebrae
o Seven
– Thoracic Vertebrae
o Twelve
– Lumbar Vertebrae
o Five
9. Know signs and symptoms of SCUBA diving injuries
– Decompression Sickness
o Nitrogen gas bubbles trapped in tissue, caused by repaid assent o
– Air Embolism
o Gas bubbles in the blood stream
o Scuba diver with frothy blood
10. Know how to take spinal precautions and fully immobilize a patient on a LSB with c-collar – Examine for entrance and exit wounds before putting someone on a back board – Person at the head, holding c-spine, controls the move – What kind of collar do you use to hold c-spine? o Rigid cervical collar

11. Know treatment for impaled objects
– Never remove an impaled object, unless it is in the cheek and you can see both ends and it is obstructing the airway. – Stabilize the impaled object with gauze so it doesn’t move 12. Know treatment for soft tissue injuries

– 1. direct pressure
– 2. Elevation
– 3. Pressure Dressing
– 4. Tunicate
– Nerve remove a dressing from a bleeding wound
13. Know the treatment for musculoskeletal injuries.
– Splinting
– What is the best thing you can do for an Injury with no distal pulse? o Reposition the injured part--one time
14. Know treatment for chest injuries, open and closed, and flail segments – Open Chest wound
o Occlusive dressing
– Closed Chest Wound
o
– Flail Segment (chest)
o Assist with ventilations
o...
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