Translation – The process of translation between two different languages involves the translator changing an original text (the source text – ST) in the original verbal languages (the source languages – SL) in a different verbal language (the target language – TL) S. Bassnet def: Translation is rendering of a SL text into the TL so as to ensure that: 1) the surface meaning of the two will be approximately similar, and 2) the structures of the SL will e preserved as closely as possible but not so closely that the TL structures will be seriously distorted. Susan Basset: Telling the same things in a different language in a way that sounds natural, getting the point across.
Intralingual – an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs of the same language Interlingual – an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language Intersemiotic – an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal sign systems.
Free translation - translator replaces a social, or cultural, reality in the source text with a corresponding reality in the target text Literal - rendering of text from one language to another "word-for-word". Overt – is a TT that does not mean to be an original. The individual text function cannot be tha same for TT and ST since the cultures are different. Covert – ST is not linked to the ST culture or audience; both ST and TT address their respective receivers directly. Domestication vs foreigization: translation methods that move "the writer toward [the reader]", i.e., fluency, and those that move the "reader toward [the author] (domestication) ", i.e., an extreme fidelity to the foreignness of the source text (foreignization). Documentary (preserve the original exoticizing setting) vs instrumental (adaptation of the setting to the target culture) Text Type Theory: Katharina Reiss. Determine, what kind of text you are dealing with: • Informative – plain facts (newspaper article)
• Expressive – creative composition (poetry)
• Operative – including behavioural responses (ads)
• Multi/audio-medial (films or visual/oral ads)
Equivalence: Dynamic equivalence (also known as functional equivalence) attempts to convey the thought expressed in a source text (if necessary, at the expense of literalness, original word order, the source text's grammatical voice, etc.), while formal equivalence attempts to render the text word-for-word (if necessary, at the expense of natural expression in the target language). J.C.Catford
• A formal correspondent – any TL category which van be said to occupy the ‘same’ place in SL • A textual equivalent – any TL text or part of text that van be said to be the equivalent of the ST Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS)
• A firmly empirical (kogemuslik) discipline
• Describes and maps translations
• Proposes hypotheses as why the translations are like they are • Avoids being prescriptive
The aim of DTS is to acquire insight into the nature and function of translation as a cultural and historical phenomenon DTS leading figures: Gideon Toury, André Lefevere
Early translation theory
Cicero – senise-for-sense. Synthesized in Latin Greek philosophers. The founder of Western translation theory. The 1st to comment on the process of translation. Translation serves as the study and imitation of rhetorical models. Free translation that is focused on the meaning. Horace model – target orientation. Aesthetically pleasing and creative translation. Art of Poetry. Quintilian – remarks on translations are v much in the Ciceroian tradition. Makes a difference between: metaphrasis – replacing a single word with a single word;
paraphrasis – replacing a phrase with a phrase.
Jerome model – translation Bible –> latin „Vulgate“ (405. y). Translated sense-for-sense, rather that word-for-word. German Romanticism: individual...