LECTURE 5 TOURISM PRODUCT
* On successful completion of this module you should be able to: * define what tourism is and how it is related to the areas of hospitality, leisure, recreation events and travel * identify and compare the concepts of commodification and authenticity and the positive or negative impacts associated with them * define and describe the main categories of the tourism product * classify tourism products according to their specific categories * describe an attraction and examine its positioning within the tourism product.
Tourism is “the sum of the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting, transporting, hosting and management of tourists and other visitors.” (Goeldner and Ritchie 2006) additions from (Lawton and Weaver 2010) in italics Tourism Product
Tourism product- the combination of tourist attractions and the tourist industry (Weaver and Lawton 2010) Attraction Inventory
Attraction Inventory- A systematic list of tourist attractions found in a particular destination (Weaver and Lawton 2010 p.391) Tourist Attractions may be either natural or cultural
Natural Attractions as the name delineates, are associated more closely with the natural environment. Natural site can be subdivided into topography, climate, water, wildlife, vegetation and location
Destinations have little scope for changing their natural assets The challenge is to manipulate market image so that ´unattractive’ natural phenomena are converted into tourism resources.
Category| Site| Event|
Natural| TOPOGRAPHY e.g. mountains, canyons, beaches, volcanoes, caves, fossil sites| protected areas, hiking trails| volcanic eruptions | | CLIMATE e.g. temperature, sunshine, precipitation, sky | | sunsets, sunrises | | HYDROLOGY e.g. lakes, rivers, waterfalls, hot springs| scenic highways, scenic lookouts, spas| Tides, geyser eruptions | | WILDLIFE e.g. mammals, birds, insects, fish, reptiles| wildlife parks, botanical gardens | animal migrations (e.g. caribou and geese) | | VEGETATION e.g. forests, wildflowers| | autumn leaf colour and spring blossom displays | | LOCATION e.g centrality, extremity| | |
Cultural| PREHISTORICAL e.g. Aboriginal sites| |
| HISTORICAL e.g. battlefields, old buildings, museums, ancient monuments, grave yards, statues| Battle re-enactments, commemorations| | CONTEMPORARY CULTURE e.g. architecture, ethnic neighbourhoods, modern technology, arts| festivals, world fairs, concerts, art exhibitions, fashion shows| | ECONOMIC e.g. farms, mines, factories| |
| RECREATIONAL e.g. integrated resorts, golf courses, ski hills, theme parks, casinos| sporting events, Olympics| | RETAIL e.g. mega malls, shopping districts|
Figure 1.1 Generic inventory of tourist attractions as seen in Weaver and Lawton and Weaver 2010 p. 116 Topography- Geological features in the physical landscape such as mountains, valleys plateaus, islands, canyons, deltas, dunes, cliffs, beaches, volcanoes and caves Mountains illustrate the subjective and changing nature of tourism resources. May be effected by the progress of technology, the change in societal perceptions, accessibility etc. Beaches- 3s (seaside, sand, sun) tourism, also subjective
Cultural sites, also known as ‘built’, ‘constructed’ or ‘human-made’ sites, are as or more diverse than their natural counterparts. Categories of convenience include pre-historical, historical, contemporary, economic activity, specialised recreation and retail. Attraction Attributes
Attraction Attributes: Characteristics of an attraction that are relevant to the area as a tourist destination and should be periodically measured and monitored 1. Ownership