Tourism, indigenous peoples and endogeneity in the Chatham Islands Peter Wiltshier
School of Culture and Lifestyle, University of Derby, Buxton, UK, and
Tourism in the Chatham Islands 265
Department of Management and International Business, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight indigenous and endogenous components of community capacity development through a focus on enterprise with renewed vigour and fervency attributable to local power elites and local collaboration and cooperation. Design/methodology/approach – The twenty-ﬁrst century identiﬁes good practices in many aspects of bottom-up planning and implementation in neoliberal political economies. New Zealand is for many reasons, due to scale, skills and education, an example of endogenous development that is used globally for best practice studies. This paper speciﬁcally identiﬁes and explores the local responses to the challenge of democracy and opportunities for diversiﬁcation through tourism services provision on the Chatham Islands. Findings – The paper notes that community capacity and governance on the Chathams has been the subject of discussion in recent years and the focus has been directed to conﬂicts in governance and possibly inappropriate policy and practice coordination. Although the refocus on endogenous development, empowerment and devolution of responsibility has a long pedigree in the context of the neoliberal economy, insufﬁcient attention has been paid to the skills, inclination, social and economic capital for indigenous enterprise, more so in an environment of isolation, relative deprivation and dependence. Originality/value – This paper highlights indigenous and endogenous components of community capacity development through a focus on enterprise with renewed vigour and fervency attributable to local power elites and local collaboration and cooperation. A useful model of indigenous tourism development and its endogenous antecedents is considered at the conclusion. Keywords Sustainable development, Tourism development, Communities, New Zealand Paper type Research paper
The Chatham Islands of New Zealand The Chatham Islands are the most remote continuously inhabited Islands of New Zealand. The Islands have a declining population which was 609 in 2006 and had fallen by 15 per cent since the previous census in 2001 (www.stats.govt.nz). The group lies in the Southern Ocean some 800 kilometres to the east of New Zealand. This remoteness has led to the development of both a homogenous identity among the Chatham Island inhabitants, in that they identify as “Chatham Islanders” and a more heterogeneous identity based on at times competing indigenous backgrounds. On the Chathams, two large groups vie for the position of being the ﬁrst indigenous people. They are the Moriori, an early Polynesian migrant race, a possible sub group of the New Zealand Maori, and it is this group, the Moriori that are the
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy Vol. 2 No. 3, 2008 pp. 265-274 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1750-6204 DOI 10.1108/17506200810902702
original inhabitants of the Islands. They were then followed by European sealers and whalers, and ﬁnally in 1840, by a Maori invasion which decimated the peaceful Moriori by which time were the majority population of the Islands. However, the Maori group on the Islands claim to be the people of the land as the Maori are recognised as the original settlers of New Zealand – of which the Chatham group are part (King and Morrison, 1990). This has in the past created much tension and confusion while the two groups play out their differences. The isolation of the Islands has also led to development of a unique system of governance which in some respects has not...