Total Quality Management

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INTRODUCTION TO TQM
In real world, company actually compete in term of quality, price and delivery to capture its customers which finally leads to the establishment of Total Quality Management Philoshopy to fulfill one of the element stated. In Malaysia, government had carries various effort to enhance and assist the quality standard by establishment of SIRIM. SIRIM had been responsible to promote ISO 9000 and TQM among Malaysian business industries.

DEFINITION OF TQM
As defined by OXFORD Dictionary of Accounting, TQM is an approach to managing people and business processes that emphasizes the importance of customer satisfaction. TQM programs usually entails improved workplace training, a degree of employment empowerment and a redesign of work processes. Meanwhile, in an organisation, TQM is an integrated organisational effort designed to improve quality at every level.

TQM which based on customer-defined quality as it is all about meeting the quality expectations as defined by the customer. Since people as vary from one to another, their definition of quality and measurement aspect also vary. Therefore, definition of quality is important one in excercising TQM concept.

DEFINITION OF QUALITY
Quality as one of qualitative factor that not easy to be defined. As mentioned above, people might defined quality based on their opinion. Some people stated quality is when their expectation for product or services has been fulfill. Others might said that quality is when the product has less defect as compared to the same range product by different manufacturer. For example, there is a lot of quality factors defined within two group of customers in choosing better future tech mobile phone either iPhine 5 or Samsung S4. One group might choosing iPhone 5 based on the company’s reputation (Apple Inc.) while other might go for Samsung S4 due to the globalwide most users and improvement in some technical aspect. Thus, definition of quality as accepted globally was taken from ANSI/ASQ Standard A-3 1987 was:

“ quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy implied or stated needs” Despite the divergence of views on what quality is, it may be summed up as “doing things properly” (Dahlagaard et al., 1998) for enhancing competitiveness and profitability within the context of quality culture

Some other common definition of quality are:
* Conformance to spesifications
It measures how well the product or service meets the targets and tolerances determined by its designers. For examples, the fast food restaurant services may be in range of 5 minutes, however if there is slighthly delay for another 5 minutes, it might be acceptable by the customers.

* Fitness for use
It focused on how well the product performs its intended function or use. For example, both Acer Aspire Advance and Dell Alienware can be used for documentation, written and other function of computer uses. However, if the definition become more spesific with the assumption of the use of computer is for gaming purposes or playing high graphic motion games, therefore, Dell Alienware is the greater fitness for use.

* Value for price paid
Refers to the product of service usefulness. It combines the quantitive factor of economics with the quality demand criteria. The cuatomers tend to seek the same service or product offered however at lower price. This is due to the greater value of price element in customer’s perception. For example, both Sony Xperia Z has sold in the market, however the one that the agent sold is more cheaper while the Sony’s centre is a little bit higher. Customer whom had choose to buy from agent will feel it gives the greater value for the price of money spent.

* Support Services
It refers to the how the quality of a product or services is judged. Quality itself is judged at holistic level comprising the process involved, organisational environment to the...
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