Torts Outline

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TORTS FINAL EXAM OUTLINE

INTENTIONAL TORTS3
2.Battery3
3.Assault3
4.Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress3
5.False Imprisonment4
6.Trespass4
6.1.Trespass to Land4
6.2.Trespass to Chattels4
6.3.Conversion4

AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES5
7.Consent (Privilege)5
8.Self Defense (Privilege)5
8.1.Self-Defense by Force Not Threatening Death or Serious Bodily Harm5 8.2.Self-Defense by Force Threatening Death or Serious Bodily Harm6 9.Defense of Others6
10.Defense of Property6
11.Necessity (Privilege)7
12.Discipline (page 93 in casebook)7
13.Arrest and Crime Prevention (page 95 in casebook)7
14.Shopkeeper’s Defense7

NEGLIGENCE8
15.Negligence8
16.Negligence Per Se8
17.Custom9
18.Res Ipsa Loquitor (The Thing Speaks For Itself)9
19.Affirmative Duties (duty established by a relationship or nonfeasance and misfeasance)10 20.Landowner and Possessor Liability – Duties10

CAUSATION11
21.Actual Causation11
21.1.Actual Causation – Single Defendants12
21.2.Actual Causation – Joint and Several Liability13 21.3.Actual Causation – Joint and Several Liability (Substantial Factor)13 21.4.Actual Causation – Joint and Several Liability (Alternative Causation)13 22.Proximate Cause14

22.1.Foreseeable Consequences14
22.2.Intervening Causes15
22.3.Proximate Cause for Intentional Tortfeasors15
22.4.Foreseeability of Rescuers15
22.5.Foreseeable Plaintiffs15

NEGLIGENCE – SPECIAL RULES16
23.Non-liability for Foreseeable Consequences16
23.1.Bystander Emotional Harm16
23.2.Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress (NIED)17 23.3.Injury to Personal Relationships (Loss of Consortium)17 24.Prenatal Harm17
25.Economic Harm18

NEGLIGENCE – AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES18
26.Contributory Negligence18
27.Last Chance Rule18
28.Comparative Negligence (Modern Rule)18
29.Assumption of Risk20
30.Immunities20

DAMAGES21
31.Damages21
31.3.Eggshell Plaintiff Rule22
31.4.Wrongful Death22

STRICT LIABILITY23
32.Worker’s Compensation23
33.Vicarious Liability23
34.Strict Liability (Activities)24
34.3.Animal Strict Liability24
34.4.Nuisance24
34.5.Affirmative Defenses25

PRODUCTS LIABILITY25
35.Strict Product Liability25
36.Manufacturing Defect26
37.Failure to Warn27
38.Design Defect28
39.Product Liability – Causation28
40.Products Liability – Defense: Comparative Responsibility28

1. Reasons for Tort Policy
Instrumental Rationales: Tort law is an instrument for achieving social goals. E.g. Econ. Analysis of Law (Posner) 1) Deterrence: people should desist from harm producing or wasteful conduct; 2) Efficiency: Maximize total social wealth Non-Instrumental Rationales: Tort law should punish wrongful conduct. E.g. Non-reciprocal Risk (Fletcher) 1) Compensation (to P): D causes harm to P; 2) Fairness (to D): corrective justice

INTENTIONAL TORTS
|Intent |Recklessness |Negligence |Strict Liability | |R 3d § 1 |R 3d § 2 |R 3d § 3 |R3d § 20, Products Liability | |R 2d § 8A |R 2d § 500 |R 2d § 283 |R 2d §§ 402A, 519 | |Act with purpose of producing the|Acts with knowing indifference to a |Does not exercise |Engages in certain conduct that | |consequence or knowing that the |risk of harm that would be obvious to |reasonable care under all |causes harm. | |consequence is substantially |another in that situation; Acts with |the circumstances; | | |certain (constructive intent) to |deliberate disregard of...
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