Tombois

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The “normative woman” can pursue her desire for and sexual relations with a tomboi without becoming marked as a gender transgressor because she is fulfilling her obligation and gender role that is defined for her.

Gaya Nusantara, national magazine for gay men and lesbians. Covers topics on gay/lesbian identities, relationships, coming out.
Gay Lestari- lesbians to coming out.

Cowok-Cewek are from working class and not like lesbians from middle/upper class. Gayatri 1993- excluded cowok from her earlier work on lesbians in Indonesia. Tombois perceived as imitating men and needed modernization and education. Gayatri 1997-report stories about Indonesian lesbians who try to marry. Sex-congruence surgery- bringing their sex into congruence with gender. Female subjects who are masculine and erotically attracted to women are seen as deviants from model of mother and wife.

Playing gender:
Masculinities that tombois construct reflect their different locations in global market ,local community, and represented differently from village to village.

Dayan’s masculinity reflects ideals of her rural village. (young men drink, smoke, gamble, use coarse language, but also are strong, industrious, respectful of elders, responsible for lineage and wife’s family)

-has traveled knows of Euro-American model of lesbian identitiy, she is more fluid with her identity as both tomboi and lesbi.

Agus’s masculinity reflects poor, working-class men in Indonesia. (full of bravado and coarseness, lack politeness and respectfulness)

-has never left Kampung village, if she were to see other models of lesbian relations perhaps she would be open to playing a different role.

“Tomboi identity is constantly being negotiated and redefined in response to local, national, and transnational processes.”

Tombois can not fit into any one category, woman, lesbian, or transgendered person.

Gender transgression results from not only rebellion against male dominance but the...
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