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FEDERATION OF MALAYA 1948

Introduction

The Federation of Malaya (Malay: Persekutuan Tanah Melayu) is the name given to a federation of 11 states (nine state sand two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca) that existed from 31 January 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957. It was reconstituted as Malaysia with the addition in 1963 of Singapore, Sabah, and Sarawak.

History

From 1946 to 1948, the 11 states formed a single British crown colony known as the Malayan Union. Due to opposition from Malay nationalists, the Union was disbanded and replaced by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the symbolic positions of the rulers of the Malay states. Within the Federation, while the Malay states were protectorates of the United Kingdom, Penang and Malacca remained British colonial territories. Like the Malayan Union before it, the Federation did not include Singapore, despite its traditional connections withMalaya. The Federation achieved independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on 31 August 1957.[1] In 1963, the Federation was reconstituted as "Malaysia" when it federated with the British territories of Singapore, Sarawak, and British North Borneo (renamed Sabah); the latter territory was claimed to be a part of the Sultanate of Sulu. Singapore separated from Malaysia to become an independent republic on 9 August 1965.

The Federation Agreement

The Federation of Malaya Agreement was formulated by the British–Malay Pleno Conference between June and December 1946. At the end of the meeting, the Pleno Conference produced a 100-page "Blue Book". The Federation of Malaya Agreement was signed on 21 January 1948 at King House by the Malay rulers, and by Sir Edward Gent as the representative of the British government. The Agreement superseded the Agreement creating the Malayan Union, and prepared for the establishment of the Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948. The position of the Malay rulers was also restored. As with the Malayan Union, the Federation excluded Singapore, despite its traditional links to Malaya.

List of member state
* Johore
* Kedah
* Kelantan
* Malacca
* Negeri Sembilan
* Pahang
* Penang
* Perak
* Perlis
* Selangor
* Terengganu

System of government

The government of the Federation of Malaya was headed by a British High Commissioner with executive powers, assisted and advised by theFederation of Malaya Executive Council and the Federation of Malaya Legislative Council. * The Federation of Malaya Executive Council comprised 7 official and 7 unofficial members. * The Federation of Malaya Legislative Council comprised the High Commissioner as the Council President, 14 official and 50 unofficial members representing the Straits Settlements, business groups and all races. Additionally, 9 State Council Yang Di Pertua (heads of state), Chief Ministers and 2 representatives from the Straits Settlements became unofficial members. * The Malay Conference of Rulers would advise the High Commissioner on immigration issues. The British Resident was replaced with a Chief Minister in each state of the federation.

Condition of citizenship

The conditions of citizenship of the Federation of Malaya were further tightened using law enforcement and naturalisation by application. Under the laws, the following were automatically granted citizenship: 1. Citizens of the Sultan of any state

2. British citizens born in Penang or Malacca who have lived continuously for 15 years in the federation 3. British citizens born in the federation whose fathers were born or lived continuously for 15 years in the federation 4. Anyone born in the federation, conversant in the Malay language and following Malay traditions in his or her daily life 5. Anyone born in the federation whose parents were born and lived continuously for 15 years in the federation Via naturalisation (by...
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