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1. BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION
Aristotle’s classification
- Aristotle was the earliest to attempt a more scientific
basis for classification of organisms.
- He classified plants into trees, shrubs & herbs and
animals into two groups, those which had red blood and
those that did not.
Two-kingdom classification
- In Linnaeus' time Two Kingdom classification (Kingdom
Plantae & Kingdom Animalia) was developed.
Drawbacks of 2-kingdom classification
Prokaryotes (Bacteria, cyanobacteria) and eukaryotes
(fungi, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms)
were included under ‘Plants’. It is based on the presence

of cell wall. But prokaryotes and eukaryotes are widely
differed in other characteristics.
It included the unicellular and the multicellular organisms
in same group. E.g. Chlamydomonas and Spirogyra were
placed under algae.
It did not differentiate between the heterotrophic fungi
and the autotrophic green plants. Fungi have chitinous
cell wall while the green plants have cellulosic cell wall.

Five Kingdom Classification
- It is proposed by R.H. Whittaker (1969).
- It includes Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae & Animalia.
- This classification is based on cell structure, thallus
organisation, mode of nutrition, reproduction and
phylogenetic relationships.

Characteristics of the five kingdoms
Characters

Monera
Cell type
Prokaryotic
Non-cellular
Cell wall
(polysaccharide +
amino acid)
Nuclear membrane Absent

Protista
Eukaryotic

Body organisation

Cellular

Cellular

Mode of nutrition

Autotrophic
(photosynthetic &
chemosynthetic) and
heterotrophic
(saprophyte/parasite)

Autotrophic
(photosynthetic)
and heterotrophic

Present in some
Present

Five kingdoms
Fungi
Eukaryotic

Plantae
Eukaryotic

Animalia
Eukaryotic

Present (without
cellulose)

Present
(cellulose)

Absent

Present
Multicellular,
loose tissue

Present

Heterotrophic
(saprophytic or
parasitic)

Tissue/organ...
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