The Usa in World Affairs

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Objectives of American Foreign Policy
Peace
National Security
America did not have national security councils until 1812 (concerning borders etc.) because we were not worried about threats Self-Preservation
Survival
Maintain your status and integrity as a nation
Influences on American Foreign Relations
External factors
Internal factors
Usually overlooked. Has a strong consequences to foreign policies Isolationism
Expansionism
Conflict between these last two. We want to protect ourselves and keep our selves from external factors, yet we feel destined to expand everywhere External Influences
U.S. foreign policy designed to cope with actions of other countries on the world stage America has been involved in every major world war since the founding of Jamestown in 1807 Plus, regional wars and military actions without formal declarations of war To defend or expand boundaries or to wage a preventive war

To defend domestic institutions, economic prosperity, ideological and religious beliefs. To preserve in world our power, territory, natural resources, industrial capacity, population, national character, national morale, quality of government U.S. not always a powerful state. Reacted in earlier times much differently that more recent times. Internal Influences

Foreign policy “realists” argue domestic events should not enter into foreign policy, but they always do Even dictators must take domestic issues into consideration
Political considerations i.e. to win elections
Economic gain for small groups of individuals or the entire country Ethnic ties and sympathies
Religious ties and sympathies
1990’s the conservatives gave Clinton hell for not protecting Christianity in China Emotions and psychological make up of certain Americans idealism, nationalism, jingoism. Isolationism
Geographic
Locked between two major oceans: trade, British policies took long, disease barrier from the rest of the world Linguistic
English speaking country. Told immigrants, (Germans were majority) come on over, do what you want but “Just speak English” Religiously distinct
Its not just being Christian, but also no state religion, no political leadership run by a church or a religion Temperament
Belief in “American Exceptionalism”
We are special and we better keep it that way. Kick the Muslim, Japanese, Chinese cultures away. We need to stop all of that to preserve our special quality. Isolationism On the other hand, we have a great constitution and gov’t, we have to spread it. Expansionism Expansion

An ongoing theme from day one (Jamestown, expansion)
Continuous expansion (non-defense):
Territory
Military
Economic
Cultural
Ideaological
“American Exceptionalism
Started off: “City on the Hill”
Manifest Destiny
Mission
Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt Corollary
Wilsonian Internationalism
Truman Doctrine
Bush Doctrine

External Influences
Successes and failures of U.S. foreign policy were determined by developments abroad U.S. had only so much control, and that varied
Hostile global environment provided threats and opportunities “It was this bitter cut-throat international rivalry which was to make American independence possible” – Samuel Flagg Bernis Impact
Made survival possible
Commercial gains
Expanded commercially. The British were preoccupied, the Dutch, French, Spanish wanted to trade with us Territorial expansion
Napoleon was having trouble in the continent, therefore America was able to take advantage in purchasing Louisiana. Gave population lust for more…
Empire
1492-1815 (and beyond) Western Europe immersed in wars for Power Empire, religion, dynasty, ideology
Under Mercantilism colonies brought prosperity and power: economic nationalism Mercantilism was the top way of business. Gov’ts were partnered with mercantilism. Not too much private business. Colonies serve mercantilism. For ex. British supported colonies for money, not to “promote religious prosperity” They also wanted colonies to restrict other...
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