The Unfinished Nation Ch 16

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Chapter 16: The Conquest of The Far West

Thesis:By the mid 1840’s migration was heading west. There was more opportunity, and known as the “frontier”. It was an empty land awaiting settlement and civilization; a place of wealth, adventure, opportunity, and untrammeled individualism

Essential statement: developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitates profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution consumer goods

The Societies of the West:
most arid territory
contained wettest, lushest
flat plains/ high mountains
many people

The Western Tribes:
Indians- most important western population before white migration most indigineous
some forced west of mississippi
pattern of civilization developed
300,000 indians lived on pacific coast before arrival of spanish settlers support through fishing, foraging, simple agriculture
Peublo’s in south west established permanent settlement
**plains indians**
made up of many tribes/ languages
farmers less vs.buffalo hunter
horse
bison/ beffalo provided economy
flesh- food; skin- materials, used all parts
plains warriors
whites biggest foes
mid 19th c
sioux, arapaho, cheyene, -powerful alliance
greatest “tribe” ecological- economic decline
vulnerable to disease
**indian disadvantages**
1840’s- long term battle; fall economically and industry

Hispanic New Mexico:
1840’s U.S acquired mexican residents
farming/ trading 17th C
more recent- cattle/ sheep ranching
anglo americans established territory ignoring the 50,000 hipanics worried land would be confiscated
1847 taos indians rebelled
killed new gov/ anglo american officials
subdues by US army
US organized gov in 1850
US broke power of tibes
led to hispanic migration
1880’s-90’s railroads
new economic activity
nre mexican immigration looking for work
got lowest paying least stable jobs

Hispanic California and Texas:
spanish settlement 18th c
christian missions
1830’s new mexican government restricted church power
mex aristocracy
**anglo-american onslaught**
english excluded mex
from mines (during gold rush)
many lost land (corrupt business deals)
became part of lower working class
unable to raise livestock
control of anglo-ranchers
**hispanics oppressed**
similar scenario in Texas
lost land (fraud, coercion)
1859; Juan Cortina raided jail/ freed all mexicans
increasingly imoverished
unskilled farmers/ industrial labor

The Chinese Migration:
hopes of better lives
hawaii, aus, etc... as well as US
same as “coolies” - indentured sevants
1848 **increased migration**
200,000 settled in US as free laborers
hard working; white saw them as rivals
early 1850’s
joined hunt for gold
1852 us excluded “foreign miners” tax
drove chinese out of prosecting
1865; 12,000 work on railroad (transcontinental)
90% or labor force of central pacific
rpreffered them to white laborers
worked hard, few demands, low wages
winter; slept in snow banks
collapsed-suffocated
spring 1866 5,000 railriad workers rebelled
railroad conditions
strike; higher wages; shorter days
company isolated them, starved them to submission
strike failed, returned to jobs
1869 railroad complete
lost jobs (1,000)
moved to agriculture work
moved to cities
**chinatowns**
led my merchants- “Six companies”
became, in effectm employment brokers, defenders community... elaborate festivaks
secret societies “tongs”- engaged in violent conflict
lower rungs of employment
1890’s 60% laundry workers
1880, nearly ½ chinese women- prostitutes
women started to increase

Anti-Chinese Sentiments:
some violent
white resent chinese workers
working mens party of california 1878; denis kearney**chinese expulsion act** banned chinese innigration for 10 years, renewed twice wach for 10 years, became permanent in 1902 declind chinese population by 40% in 40 years

Migration from the East:
attracted by gold...
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