The Study and Scope of Justice Administration

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Questions for Review

1. An organization is a unit of people or positions that is structured and managed to meet the needs or pursue a goal.

2. The evolution of organizations is divided into three approaches and time periods:

a. Scientific management ( 1900-1940)

i. Frederick W. Taylor

1. Theory of management concerned with the physical efficiency of an individual worker

b. Human relations management (1930-1970)

i. Harvard Business School at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company

1. Worker productivity is more closely related to social capacity than to physical capacity, that noneconomic rewards play a prominent part in motivating and satisfying employees, and that employees do not react to management and its rewards as individuals but as members of groups.

c. Systems management (1965-present)

i. Scientific combined with Human Relations Management

1. Designed to bring the individual and the organization together, it attempted to help managers use employees to reach desired production goal.

3. Span of control – Limits the number of direct subordinates whose work interlocks. It is the number of employees/staff that a manager is expected to supervise. A large span of control may minimize expenses but requires more management skills.

Unity of Command – refers to placing only one superior officer/manager in command of every situation. Therefore, when a critical situation occurs, someone specific is held responsible and in charge.

4. Characteristics of a great leader:

a. Have a vision - communicate your vision or the vision of your company to the people you want to follow you. Paint a picture with words.

b. Be passionate: - To inspire people to take on new challenges

c. Have character – moral and/or ethical quality; honesty

5. Katz’s Three Skills

a. Technical

b. Human

c. Conceptual

6. Communication means sharing written or oral information.

a. To effectively use both oral and written information to employees/staff.

b. Law enforcement has their own jargon/dialect/slang to communicate amongst themselves.

c. Grapevine/gossip is also a form of cultural communication.

7. What kind of leader would I be:

a. I feel like the idea of having the population have a say in issues/challenges/tasks. I feel I am here to help and have their best interests and the company`s at heart.

i. I don’t think that my skills are effective in being a leader. Perhaps with some guidance and training, I may be able to assist a leader and at some point, be able to take over.

8. McGregor’s Theory X/Theory Y:

a. Theory X:

i. Average human has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible

b. Theory Y:

i. The average human being does not inherently dislike work. It is a source of satisfaction to be performed voluntarily

c. Next Generation – Tech-savvy; the age of technology; believe the society owes them something.

Changes in television programs: today more complex, and along with impact of video gaming has created a culture that is more intellectually demanding. Individuals in now in their twenties have never known a world without digital gaming. Younger generations may not look twice at exposed tattoos or nontraditional piercings.

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Learn By Doing

1. Although, I do not completely understand bureaucracy, I did some research online and came to understand that most of the criticisms that exists (that I have found) which are prevalent is its inefficiency. The problem with this criticism is the fact that the inefficiency is built into the system. An efficient bureaucracy is that of a dictatorship, in which rules are few, and the order to the top is short. In a democracy, the bureaucracy must take every law and create guidelines within how such laws will be fulfilled, how budgets must be...
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