The Living Environment

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1. Understand what is the same about all life, and what makes life diverse A. List the five characteristics all organisms on Earth share * The five characteristics all organisms share is: information, replication, evolution, cells, and energy (cerie) B. Explain why the first four are required for life * Cells allow things to go in and out of the organism (allows diffusion to happen so good things go in and bad things go out) * Energy is required because it allows most functions and reactions to happen in the organism * Information: so your cells know what to do next( aka the things happening in your brain need information to learn) * Replication: everything an organism does revolves around trying to replicate itself(meiosis) C. Differentiate heterotrophs and autotrophs

1. Heterotrophs: need to obtain energy from an outside source 2. Autotrophs: create energy and food for themselves Some reactions are exothermic because their PEreactants is Higher than PEproducts 2. Understand that energy to sustain life is derived from chemical potential energyy * LOCS

D. Relate the distance of electrons from their protons to the concept of chemical potential energy * The further electrons are from their protons, the more PE they have (PE is stored energy, so the distance is increased and is further meaning it’ll have more want to go closer to the oppositely attacted nucleus) E. Define exergonic and endergonic chemical reactions * Exergonic reactions: happen spontaneously (don’t need any source of energy to happen) Endergonic need energy from the outside to create the reaction heat has been released to the environment> ReactantsPE greter than PEproducts(PE dropped so Exergoinic) The hydrolysis of ATP provides the energy needed for an endergonic reaction. Acquire Energy=Endergonic Rxn…Pi is transferred to a phosphate group F. Classify the hydrolosis of ATP as either endergonic or exergonic * Hydrolysis of ATP is exergonic (energy is released) the ATP outermost phosphate groups is broken…energy is created G. Classify the the phosphorylation of a substrate by ATP as either endergonic or exergonic..phosphorlyation is exergonic because the electrons in ADP and the Pi have so much less PE than they did in the ATP..phospholyation is the addition of a phosphate group to s substeate…it adds negative charge to a protein the electrons in the protein change configuration (the molecules overall shape) H. Use the First Law of Thermodynamics to explain how chemical reactions transfer energy from one molecule to another…first law states that energy is neither created nor destroy…it just means that PE will change from KE and KE will turn into thermal, sound, or light energy, the energies are just changing * HOCS

A. Predict whether reactions are exergonic or endergonic given information on the potential energy of reactants and products PE of reactants higher: PE drops: Exergonic…PE of products higher, then PE increases, and its endergonic B. Use the concepts of exergonic and endergonic reactions to explain how ATP does work in the cell via phosphorylation. 1. The addition of aphosphate group to a substrate: exergonic: electrons in ADP and phosphate group has much less PE than in ATP (meaning the ADP Pi are the products..products will have less PE than the reactants..PE drops)..When phosphorylated, the Energy is a product…The phosphorylated by ATP means that the exergonic because there was a drop in PE, DeltaG (or free energy thing) is negative 1. Understand the importance of cellular respiration to (almost all) life on Earth * LOCS

A. List (separately) the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration. Inputs of Cell Respiration:
Outputs of CR:
B. Recall that nearly all life on Earth conducts cellular respiration

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