Communication processes may include verbal communication, written communication and body or paralanguage communication. Verbal communication is most widely used followed by written communication. Written communication requires careful planning, and the choices of words used are very important for communication. The nonverbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion is known as paralanguage. This type of communication may be expressed consciously or unconsciously, and it includes pitch, volume, and intonation of speech. Email and text messaging may contain elements of paralanguage. This can be accomplished with the placement of emphasis on words, which is done by capitalizing words, uderlining words, coloring of type, and emotions. Interpersonal communication is but one form of communication interaction. This form involves people sharing information, solving problems, resolving conflicts and fulfilling social needs. There are, however, other forms of communication interactions. For example, animals to animals, people to animals and humans to computer. Humans communicate in five channels. They are also known as media of communication. Human communication includes touch, sight, smell, taste and hearing. Some believe there is a sixth sense called intuition. The communication process is made up of five parts (Fig. 1-1). These parts are the sender, the message, the medium, the receiver and the
A History of Typesetting and Graphic Communication 1
feedback. Some communication interaction may be incomplete. For example, the feedback may be missing. Primitive communication includes smoke signals and information carried by carrier and homing pigeons. As time went by, the telegraph, telephone, radio and television were developed for the communication process. The communication process questions: •Sender -Who? •Message-What? •Medium-Which channel? •Receiver- To whom? •Feedback - How effectively?
The sender is the original source of the message. This source of the message may be a person. The source however, is not limited to people. Messages may come from computers, animals, and even plants. In graphic communication, the purpose of the sender is to impart the message or information to the receiver. The information could be lost because of poor typography, poor design and poor choice of words. The process of transmitting information is called encoding.
The message is the information that originates from the source or sender and is intended for the receiver. Messages can be thoughts, ideas, text, sound, scents, data and illustrations. The type of message that is sent depends on the sender or source from which it originates. The graphic artists use type and graphics to create messages. The messages are then sent to an audience to provoke some type of response. For example, an ad is produced in hope that someone will buy the product.
Every communication process requires a means or an instrument through which communications occurs. For example, in the media of audio communication the airwaves would be an example of a medium. When people speak the sound travels through the airwaves from the sender to the receiver. The medium is also known as a transmitter or a channel through which messages flow to the receiver. Media of audio communication include telephone wires and radio waves.
Basic Typesetting and Electronic Prepress
Graphic media are divided into two groups. They are referred to as the permanent or graphic group and the nonpermanent or nongraphic group. Media in the non-graphic groups include actions like waving, smiling, dancing, flag signaling and sign language. Permanent or graphic media include movies, photographs and printed products of which there are over 1200 products.
The receiver is the intended part of the communication process that has to interpret the message, This...