The Heart (Cardiovascular)

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The Heart

PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres
Lone Star College—North Harris

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to the Cardiovascular System
• Learning Outcomes
• 20-1 Describe the anatomy of the heart, including vascular supply and pericardium structure, and trace the flow of blood through the heart, identifying the major blood vessels, chambers, and heart valves. • 20-2 Explain the events of an action potential in cardiac muscle, indicate the importance of calcium ions to the contractile process, describe the conducting system of the heart, and identify the electrical events associated with a normal electrocardiogram. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to the Cardiovascular System
• Learning Outcomes
• 20-3 Explain the events of the cardiac cycle, including atrial and ventricular systole and diastole, and relate the heart sounds to specific events in the cycle. • 20-4 Define cardiac output, describe the factors that influence heart rate and stroke volume, and explain how adjustments in stroke volume and cardiac output are coordinated at different levels of physical activity.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to the Cardiovascular System
• The Pulmonary Circuit
• Carries blood to and from gas exchange surfaces of

lungs

• The Systemic Circuit
• Carries blood to and from the body • Blood alternates between pulmonary circuit and systemic circuit

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to the Cardiovascular System
• Three Types of Blood Vessels
1. Arteries
• Carry blood away from heart

2. Veins
• Carry blood to heart

3. Capillaries
• Networks between arteries and veins

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to the Cardiovascular System
• Capillaries
• Also called exchange vessels

• Exchange materials between blood and tissues
• Materials include dissolved gases, nutrients,

waste products

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 20-1 An Overview of the Cardiovascular System

PULMONARY CIRCUIT
Pulmonary arteries Pulmonary veins

SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
Systemic arteries Systemic veins

Capillaries in lungs Right atrium Right ventricle

Capillaries in head, neck, upper limbs Left atrium Left ventricle

Capillaries in trunk and lower limbs
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

An Introduction to the Cardiovascular System
• Four Chambers of the Heart
1. Right atrium
• Collects blood from systemic circuit Pumps blood to pulmonary circuit Collects blood from pulmonary circuit Pumps blood to systemic circuit

2. Right ventricle


3. Left atrium


4. Left ventricle


© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

20-1 Anatomy of the Heart
• The Heart
• Great veins and arteries at the base

• Pointed tip is apex
• Surrounded by pericardial sac • Sits between two pleural cavities in the mediastinum

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 20-2a The Location of the Heart in the Thoracic Cavity

Trachea First rib (cut)

Thyroid gland

Base of heart Right lung Left lung Apex of heart Diaphragm Parietal pericardium (cut)

An anterior view of the chest, showing the position of the heart and major blood vessels relative to the ribs, lungs, and diaphragm.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

20-1 Anatomy of the Heart
• The Pericardium
• Double lining of the pericardial cavity

• Visceral pericardium
• Inner layer of pericardium

• Parietal pericardium
• Outer layer • Forms inner layer of pericardial sac

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

20-1 Anatomy of the Heart
• The Pericardium
• Pericardial cavity
• Is between parietal and visceral layers
• Contains pericardial fluid

• Pericardial sac
• Fibrous tissue • Surrounds and stabilizes heart

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 20-2b The Location of the Heart in the Thoracic Cavity

Posterior mediastinum Esophagus Aorta (arch segment removed) Left pulmonary artery Right lung Left pleural cavity...
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