Jessica Weaver
Ticket to Seminar-Number 4
First Year Seminar
Psychology 190-01
In Jonathan Haidt’s book, The Happiness Hypothesis, Haidt explains genuine examples to get many familiar points across to the audience without us people knowing what he is trying to do. All we are doing is reading the book trying to understand what Haidt is trying to tell us through his style and tone of each different chapter. To begin, chapter four of The Happiness Hypothesis, in my opinion was very interesting. This chapter is the chapter that has kept me the most interested throughout this entire book and I say this because what Haidt says in this chapter all makes complete sense. We can compare it to day to day ideas and they overlap exactly. With this being said, Haidt explains how us humans will judge and criticize other people, but when it comes to ourselves, we never have anything bad to say. Haidt tells and shows us many examples in chapter four that go along with this concept such as a congressman was an outspoken opponent for gay rights and gay marriage. Later on, he was caught calling into a gay hotline looking for a man that would fit his needs exactly. What I believe Haidt was trying to do is show us that people, such as congressmen, can contradict themselves and fall out of line every once in a while. I believe that no human is perfect and that we all learn from mistakes, but deep down, we have to know what is right and what is wrong most of the time. Although we do commit some wrong mistakes, we can overcome them and they will make us a stronger person in the long run. According to my online survey, I have a strong automatic preference for straight people compared to gay people. In my opinion, this survey doesn’t describe me as well as I thought it would. I believe that it is no one’s right but God’s to judge a person for them being straight or gay. My parents and I argue about this issue all the time. They think gay marriage should not be allowed...

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The word ‘Hypothesis is derived from a Greek word, which means ‘to suppose’. It is usually considered as the principal instrument in research. For a researcher it is a formal question that he or she intends to resolve. In this way a hypothesis may be defined as a proposition or a supposition. The main function of hypothesis is to guide the collection and processing of materials and direct the research. Hypothesis is a tentative conclusion. It is facts based theory. A research scholar will analyze the information from variety of sources in order to create a hypothesis. Hypothesis can be of two types –
- Explanatory
- Descriptive
In explanatory hypothesis researcher tries to account for a given fact and the explanation is provisional because it is based on inconclusive proof. This method is especially used in finding out laws in history. The defeat of the army of Siraj in the battle of Plassey is a fact. Various explanations are offered for this fact. Again the rise of Gandhi has been accounted for variously by various authors such as Shaid Amin and Judith Brown. These explanations are really the nature of hypothesis.
Descriptive hypothesis is employed for making a complex mass of facts, which are isolated from one another, a meaningful unit by describing it in a collective manner. To...

...Chapter-11
Testing of Hypothesis:
(Non-parametric Tests)
Chapter-11: Testing of Hypothesis - (Non-parametric Tests)
2
11.1. Chi - square ( χ )Test / Distribution
2
11.1.1. Meaning of Chi - square ( χ )Test
2
11.1.2. Characteristics of Chi - square ( χ )Test
2
11.2. Types of Chi - square ( χ )Test / Distribution
2
11.2.1. Chi - square ( χ )Test for Population Variance
2
11.2.2. Chi - square ( χ )Test for Goodness-of-Fit
2
11.2.3. Chi - square ( χ )Test or Independence
11.3. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
11.3.1. Meaning of ANOVA
11.3.2. ANOVA Approach
11.4. ANOVA Technique
11.4.1. One-way ANOVA
11.4.2. Two-way ANOVA
11.4.3. ANOVA in Latin-square Design
11.5. Other Nonparametric Techniques
Summary:
Key Terms:
Questions:
11.1. CHI-SQUARE (
) TEST /DISTRIBUTION
2
11.1.1. Meaning of Chi - square ( χ )Test
2
A chi-square test (also chi squared test or χ test) is any statistical hypothesis test in which the
sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-square distribution when the null hypothesis is true,
or any in which this is asymptotically true, meaning that the sampling distribution (if the null
hypothesis is true) can be made to approximate a chi-square distribution as closely as desired by
making the sample size large enough. The Chi-Square (
) test is the most popular non-parametric
test/methods, to test the hypothesis. The...

...Read step 2: The hypothesis
Answer the following questions:
* What is a hypothesis?
* How is a hypothesis different from a theory in science?
* Describe an example of how you may use the scientific method in your daily life and state a good hypothesis for that example.
* Which hypothesis did you first pick in the "Recognizing a good hypothesis" activity in the scientific method tutorial? Why? If any, which mistake(s) did you make when picking a hypothesis?
A hypothesis is a specific possible explanation for a particular observation or phenomenon, or a logical guess about how things work. In addition, hypothesis is testable as well as falsifiable through experimentations or investigations. Theory in the other hand is much broader, well tested and has not been falsified, it is also well accepted by the general compare to hypothesis. One example on how the scientific method is used in my daily life is when my cell phone randomly dies or turns off. I attempted to turn it on but it wouldn’t. So now, I come up with a hypothesis that my cell phone died due to the battery is out of power.
On the activity “Recognizing Good Hypothesis”, I have chosen the second statement “B. E. coli cells will die within 8 hours if it is exposed to temperatures below 80˚F.” because the statement provided...

...Hypothesis: The more air that gets blow into the balloon the farther the points on the balloon will be from each other.
Analysis: and Conclusion How does the density and distribution of your “stars” change as the balloon expands?
Density and distribution of "stars" as the balloon expands because when volume increases the density will increase.
Compare and contrast your experimental procedures with the Big Bang theory. How does your balloon represent the Big Bang theory? What are the shortcomings of the experimental design?
The Universe is constantly expanding and as it expands the stars and objects in space move farther apart, just like the points on the balloon when air is blown into it. The balloon represents the big bang theory by showing constant expansion of the objects in space. It represents how change plays a big part in the theory because it's a never ending expansion therefore never being the same.
The shortcomings of the experimental design is what the universe has no known limit to which it can grow, as for a balloon when enough air is put in, it will pop.
How does the model you created help to show that the Steady State theory is inaccurate? The steady state theory is inaccurate because the model does not create new matter; it just expands further the matter that is already present. Suggest a way that a scientist could create an even more accurate model of the Big Bang theory. Baking a chocolate chip cookie. The chocolate chips would...

...all, the video did a fair job buttressing my understanding of hypothesis testing. The textbook explained the aspects and steps of hypothesis testing in a legible fashion, while the video helped demonstrate a real-life application.
I learned from the text that hypothesis testing is a “Procedure for deciding whether the outcome of a study (results from a sample) supports a particular theory or practical innovation (which is thought to apply to a population)” (Aron A., Aron, E., and Coups, 2011, p. 145). I also learned that hypothesis testing follows a set procedure that appears as follows:
Step 1) Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations
- Basically, a researcher constructs a hypothesis. Then he/she forms a null hypothesis that opposes the research hypothesis in
polar fashion. To help support one’s research hypothesis, one has to disprove the null hypothesis.
Step 2) Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution
- When using two or more samples, one must gather information about the distribution of means.
Step 3) Determine the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected
- Most researchers choose a significance level of 0.05 or 0.01.
Step 4)...

...Real Estate Sample Hypothesis Testing
The question or issue that the buyer wants to address is that property closer to town is more expensive so buyers that purchase property further from the center of town get a more affordable home. The research is necessary so that the buyer will remain within the budget that they have set for themselves. Although the cost of the home is very important, it is also important to factor in other expenditures such as upkeep, repairs and any upgrades that may want to be added. It is a critical move for the buyer to factor in all the expenses incurred in the move. The buyer may also want to be aware that the property in the center of town as well as the property outside the center of town will have different taxes depending on the township or county they are in. To begin the buying process, the buyer must research the area in which he or she would like to buy property.
When purchasing a home, location is everything. As a buyer, one should be aware of the cost of living in the area of choice, as well as expect a higher cost the closer to the center of town you get. It is also important as a buyer to find an area that fits your lifestyle as well as your budget. Many working families require both parents to travel to a metropolis area for work but feel that the city is not a place to raise a child and that the suburbs may be more suitable.
However, they must factor in the extra expenditures that will be spent on the...

...
Hypothesis Testing
PSY/315
The team was assigned the task of forming a hypothesis test on, whether it is easier to cope with the death of a loved one, via suicide, if they leave some form of final communication or rationale. Using a hypothesis test and the five-step process, the team formed to prove that, Loved ones of those left behind by suicide are able to express more comfort with their loved one’s decision if a note has been left behind. The hypothesis test gives validation behind why final communication has the potential to provide comfort to the loved ones. Also, by leaving a note, the null hypothesis can be rejected. In this case, the null hypothesis would be that there is no difference in the grieving process for the loved ones of people who commit suicide, whether a note was left or not. It can be relevant to those that may face such tragedies; which can give a more clear reasoning.
Suicide, the act of taking one’s own life, was the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for nearly 35,000 deaths, in 2007 (Suicide in the U.S., n.d.). Intentionally ending one’s own life, leaves loved ones to cope after the loss. Death by suicide can touch many people; those who were close to the person and even those who barely knew them. Harvard Medical suggests that with each suicide, six close survivors will be left to cope with significant loss (Left behind...

...APP6JMaloney problems 2. 4, 6, 10, 18, 22, 24
2 ) The value of the z score un a hypothesis test is influenced by a variety of factors.
Assuming that all the other variables are held constant, explain how the value
of Z is influenced by each of the following?
Z= M - u / SD
a) Increasing the difference between the sample mean and the original.
The z score represents the distance of each X or score from the mean.
If the distance between the sample mean and the population mean the z score will
increase.
b) Increasing the population standard deviation.
The standard deviation is the factor that is used to divide by in the equation. the bigger the SD,
then the smaller the z score.
c) Increasing the number of scores in the sample.
Should bring the samples mean closer to the population mean so z score will get smaller.
4) If the alpha level is changed from .05 to .01
a) what happens to the boundaries for the critical region?
It reduces the power of the test to prove the hypothesis.
You increase the chance of rejecting a true H
b) what happens to the probability of a type 1 error?
Type 1 error is falsely reporting a hypothesis,
Where you increase the chance that you will reject a true null hypothesis.
6) A researcher is investigating the effectiveness of a new study skills training program for elementary
school childreen. A sample of n=25 third grade children is selected to...