The Global Context of Japan Outside Japan

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The global context of Japan outside Japan – Harumi Befu
Since 1980s – globalization buzzword in Japanese media
Japan is said to be “globalizing” in all respects, but above all, in its economic sphere While Japan’s globalization in the economic sense had been widely discussed -> social and cultural globalization has not been a topic of much discussion so far Globalization <-> Internalization

Internalization implies a relationship between 2 or more nations: a minimum of two nations can engage in “ international” relations, i.e. Nepal and Japan who engage in a cultural exchange program Globalization implies simultaneous extension and expansion in all directions Why do we need to examine Japan’s globalization? 2 reasons 1. Ethnocentrism of the received globalization theories of scholars such as Appadurai, Wallerstein, … = their theories leave the strong impression that there is only one center = West The West’s ethnocentrism is made clear when we examine the contents of what it claims to globalize, these theorist claim that globalization involves such palpably Western values such as humanism, human rights, equality, democracy and progress -> at least one other center of globalization: namely Japan, so we need to speak of multiple globalizations 2. Need of ethnographically based studies

Without data deriving from such a basis generalizations tend to be speculative and intuitive -------------------------------------------------
To analyze Japan’s globalization -> a fourfold framework consisting of human dispersal, organizational transplantation, cultural diffusion and imagining of Japan. 1. Human dispersal
The dispersal of Japanese resulting from Japan’s economic globalization may be classified into long-term (or permanent) and short-term (or non-permanen) categories. Nonpermanent sojourners
The most prominent in this category are business expatriates and their families? Japan’s economic expansion abroad has necessarily been accompanied by movement of people. Other nonpermanent sojourners include scholars and students who go abroad for studies and research -> due to Japan’s economic affluence and the consequent availability of financial resources among the Japanese that have increased the numbers of students and scholars manifold in the last few decades. Permanent sojourners = those who are definite to stay in foreign country Conventional emigrants

The Japanese have been dispersing throughout the world since the sixteenth century. Early migrants were usually those of relatively poor economic background who were trying to find opportunities not available in Japan. The discontented

No modern, industrialized society is able to satisfy all of its members. But such loses of human resources as these are a serious issue with national policy implications: with an effective social policy, Japan could be made a more comfortable place for these Japanese to live and contribute to the society. International marriage

A large number of women in Japan marry foreigners and leave Japan when their husbands return to their country. The choice of a foreign man over a Japanese man is clearly a psychological declaration of rejection of Japanese men as marriage candidates. Opportunities abroad

Besides the obvious fact that multinationals are spreading out globally independent businessmen and women, seeing business opportunities abroad or finding business practices too restrictive to their liking in Japan because of government regulations, move abroad to carry on or start business often in a totally different line. These individuals usually go to a familiar foreign country (where they lived as student, travelled as tourist, etc.). Volunteer spirit

Younger Japanese carrying out volunteer work in a variety of fields, from education to social welfare to medical services. Un-returnees
The children of business expatriates who grew up abroad and opt for college education...
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