•The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) tells you how and when the words came to be used in the English Language •(OED) The earliest examples of a word's use are included along with the definition •The American Heritage Dictionary (AHD) tells you where English is "headed" •(AED) includes a usage panel, marginal photos and other pictorial images, obscene/profane words (omitted in OED), names of noteworthy people/places, describes interesting word histories, synonyms, and advice on how to distinguish the differences between the meanings •Memorize a list of commonly misspelled words
•Use a dictionary and don’t rely on spell-checker. . . use it but don't rely on it •Collect words that you misspell in a notebook/file to help you remember and master the words •remember the 2 purposes of accurate spelling: (1) to convey the word intended (2) to avoid distracting the reader with spelling errors •adopt a letter then randomly list words that start with that letter •let your ear influence your choice between a, an . . .
•The words a, an, and the are called articles.
•Examine your work to make sure you haven’t repeated distinctive words if so consult a thesaurus •Conjunction - and, but, yet, so, however, neither nor...... Interjection: Yikes! Whatever! Sheesh. . . •The function of parts of speech can be carried out by the word, phrase, long phrase, and clauses. •similar; different
•Homonyms: sound, spelling; definition Homophones: sound; spelling, definition Contranyms: identical spelling, sound; opposite meanings •McFredries website, wordspy, offers examples of words coined together •Portmanteau / Blend: a word whose form and meaning are derived from a blending of two or more distinct forms (octo-mom) •Compound/Kenning a kind of metaphor common in old english in which 2 words (whale-way = sea) •Front/Back Clipping: (taximeter + cab = Taxicab)
•when writing/reading about a special group keep a list of words that are most essential to that community •pay attention to the special words of your family (made up words via creativity, accident, mistake •Normans conquered England ~ brought French lang/culture ~RESULT~~ we often have two words for the same thing; a short word ~Anglo-Saxon root; and a longer word ~French and Latin i.e. (lively; vivacious) •explore the lengths of your words ~ shot=more important; long: less important •Use a foreign word or phrase when it captures something special, also make sure you translate it in the right context! Part Two
~Points~ pg. 61
•Think of the period as a full stop; a point of emphasis
oto create suspense
oTo explain step by step
oto magnify an emotion
•The serial/oxford comma can help you organize a series of words, phrases, or classes •Literature and journalism have different preferences to the use of commas •Semi colon: ‘a swinging gate’ a tool that can connect and separate at the same time •Colon: signals a list; highlights a word/phrase; it acts as a substitute for a verb (shortens a pulpy sentence) •Dash: takes the place of colons and semi colons; 2 dashes to insert an important/interesting thought within another. 1 dash to highlight a component at the end of a sentence •If a proper noun that ends in an S let your ear guide you to see whether you should add an ‘s or just an ‘ •Use a single quote to indicate a quote within a quote
•“ used for – titles of: poems, songs, essays, and chapters •Colons/semi-colons go outside the double quotes
•Use question marks to generate the reader’s curiosity and narrative energy. •Ellipsis/(plural)Ellipses-
oSignals a suspense delay
oIndicates where a part of the quoted text have been left out oUse a period at the end of a sentence then add the three dots like this. . . . Part 3
~Standards~ pg. 111
•learn to lie (to recline) or lay (to place)~ learn the distinctions between them; It will help you learn the transitive & intransitive verbs, as well...