The General Concepts of Psychology

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Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology

1. How do we presently define psychology?
the science of behavior and mental processes
2. What are operational definitions?
defines the variable in terms of how it is to be measured, manipulated, or changed in a study
Why are they important?
because many of the concepts that psychologist investigate-such as memory, happiness, or stress- can be measured in more than one way
Give an operational definition for:
Hungry- food deprived for time frame(24 hrs)
Intelligent- IQ test
Immature- age
Aggressive- number of aggressive behavior in an hour
Angry- yelling outburst in a given amount of time
3. How and why are research studies replicated?
studies are replicated by using the same exact steps the original psychologist reported in their study, studies are replicated to determine the level of scientific confidence 4. What is a correlational study?

a research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other
What is a correlation coefficient?
a numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship (the correlation) between two variables
What does it mean that factors are correlated?
a very strong association, meaning that the two factors almost always occur together 5. What is meant by “cause and effect”?
changes in one variable and the effect that is produced on another variable
Why is it said that only experiments can determine cause and effect?
an experiment involves deliberately varying one factor (independent variable) then measures the changes that are produced in a second factor (dependent variable) 6. What is meant by the terms:
Independent variable- the purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment; also called the treatment of interest
Dependent variable- the factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment; thought to be influenced by the independent variable
Placebo- is an inert substance or a treatment that has no known effects
Control group- the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except the independent variable or treatment of interest; the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared Be able to determine each of these in a given experiment.

Chapter 5 Learning
1. How is the term “learning” defined?
as a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of an individual’s experience
That is, what changes when learning occurs, and what is the cause of the change?
you acquire new behaviors or modify old behaviors so as to better cope with your surroundings 2. What are the fundamental assumptions of behaviorism?
that one should only limit themselves to study thing that can be observed- behavior, outwardly observable, what the organism does or says. 3. Classical conditioning.
A. How does classical conditioning occur?
repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response
B. What is meant by:
Unconditioned stimulus- the natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning
Unconditioned response- the learned, reflexive response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned stimulus- a formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response
Conditioned response- the learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus

Which one or ones would most likely be reflex?
unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response
C. How does the timing of the stimulus presentations affect the strength of the conditioned response?
Conditioning is most effective when the conditioned stimulus was presented immediately before the unconditioned stimulus, 1\2 is best timing
D. Describe what happened when Little Albert’s fear...
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