CH 8: Networks of Communication and Exchange, 300 B.C.E.—1100C.E.
I. The Silk Road
* Silk Road—the trade route linking the lands of the Mediterranean with China by way of Mesopotamia, Iran, and C. Asia.
A. Origins of Operations
* Parthians—named after homeland east of caspian sea—took over Iran and then Mesopotamia. They were a major force by 247 B.C.E. And had few written resources. There were several wars between the Parthians and the Seleucids, and later the Parthians and the Romans. * The Chinese General Zhang Jian is credited as originator of overland trade with the western lands. He made 18 expeditions across the dessert to the west; he 1st went to Ferghana river-valley. Helped introduce new plants and trees to China through the trade. * Long distance trade was made important by China's demand for western products Nomadic steppe people didn't trade very much but they controlled areas of the Silk Road and sold pack animals that were necessary for early traders * By 100 B.C.E. , China could trade with civilizations as far away as Greece * Everyone traded spices,fruits,seed crops, metals, medicines, animals, animal product, and art (pottery etc.)
B. The Impact of Silk Road Trade
* Helped spread ppl throughout the continent
* Helped spread religions, cultures and languages
* Helped spread technology and military technology like the stirrup—one of the most important inventions--1st a solid bar, then a loop of leather, and eventually a combination of leather and metal to create great stablility for riders on the saddle II. The Indian Ocean
* a multilingual, multi-ethnic society of seafarers established the Indian Ocean Maritime System –trade network that centered around the Indian Ocean. It connected E. Africa, S. Arabia, the Persian Gulf, India, SE Asia and China. * Trade mainly took place 3 regions: 1. S. China Sea, Chinese and Malays dominated trade. 2. E. coast of India to island of SE Asia, Indians and Malays were the main traders. 3. W coast of India to the Persian Gulf and E coast of Africa. Merchants and sailors = predominately Persians and Arabs. A. The Indian Ocean Maritime System
* The Indian Ocean trade system had bigger and more advanced ships and sails in order to take advantage of the monsoon winds. * The trade network had more advanced navigation system than the Mediterranean because the ocean was larger and sailors could no longer follow the coast. * Merchants and sailors were traveling farther distance so they tended to sever their political ties to their hometown. B. Origins of Contact and Trade
* In 2000 BC, the Sumerians traded with Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf, Oman, and the Indus Valley. Eventually the trade broke off and the Sumerians traded mostly with East Africa. C. The Impact of India Ocean Trade
* The high demand for luxuries made the need for long ocean voyages necessary, and goods were spread far and wide all over the continents of Asia, Europe, and Africa. The Indian Ocean trade system had a wide variety of items up for trade and had a much higher volume of trade. * The cultures and society of some Indian Ocean trading ports tended to be more isolated from the mainland because of geographical challenges. Others were very open, hospitable and open, becoming major centers of trade. * Women were not part of sea voyages and men tended to marry women on the ports that they landed in, at the same time spreading their hometown language and culture. The offspring had mixed heritages and a lot of cultural diversity. III. Routes Across The Sahara
* The Sahara is a desert the reaches from the Red Sea to the Atlantic Ocean, with the sub-Saharan area to the south separated from the Mediterranean. Water is scare in the desert and travel and trade was limited to a few routes across the Saharan. A. Early Saharan Cultures
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