THE DEVELOPMENT OF ABSOLUTISM IN FRANCE
* Francis I (Valois): Rival of the HRE and Charles V, unsuccessfully battled to weaken Habsburgs. * Concordat of Bologna: Granted the Pope right to collect the first year’s revenue from the Church offices in return for the ability to nominate high officials in the French Churchnationalized the church and increased the power of the monarchy * Francis I and Henry II (his successor) were opposed to any reform to the Church that could weaken the monarchy’s power over it. They both persecuted the Huguenots (French Calvinists)
Francis II and Charles IX also persecuted them.
Civil War Catherine de Medici (regent for Charles IX) passed the Edict of Toleration * St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: Catholic mobs killed Huguenot leaders in Paris. * Henry of Navarre: a Huguenot, was the heir to the French throne. He was quickly converted to Catholicism and became Henry IV * Henry IV
* issued the Edict of Nantes: granted civil and religious freedom to the Huguenots. * Reformed the tax collection system to make is more efficient * Improved transportation
* Trade, industry
INCREASE IN THE PRESTIGE OF THE MONARCHY
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTITUTIONALISM IN ENGLAND
* Henry VII: 1st Tudor monarch
* Est. a strong central government
* Regulated trade and internal commerce
* Raised revenues from the prosperous middle class
* Permanent standing army
* Checked the nobles
* Court of the Star Chamber: administered central justice and checked the nobles further * Edward VI: assumed the throne upon the death of his dad * He was young and sickly, so England was ruled by a regent, the Duke of Somerset * The Duke of Somerset was a devout Calvinist and he imposed his religion on the people. he was ousted in 1550 * Under another regent, the basic tenets of the Anglican reformation were restated, and the Anglican Book of Common Prayer was made the basis for all church services.
* Mary Tudor: Henry VIII’s 1st wife’s daughter
* Her mom was the very Catholic Queen Catherine of Aragon, so naturally she was very Catholic too. * She became queen when Edward died at 16.
* She was unpopular because she was Roman Catholic and had married King Philip II of Spain * “BLOODY MARY”—she burned hundreds of Protestants at the stake for dissenting against her attempt to reinstitute Catholicism in England. * Elizabeth I: daughter of Anne Boleyn
* Repealed Mary’s pro-Catholic legislation
* Reinstated the Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity that Henry VIII used to establish the English Reformation. * The Thirty-Nine Articles (1563) followed Protestant doctrine and was vague enough to accommodate most of the English except the Puritans (English Calvinists) * Diplomacy
* When the Netherlands, a Protestant Hapsburg possession, revolted against Spanish rule, Elizabeth entered into an alliance with the Dutch (1577) for fear that Holland would provide a vase from which Spain could invade England. * England and Holland sent privateers (pirates commissioned by the state) to prey on the treasure ships from the Spanish colonies in the new world. * Philip II (King of Spain and HREmperor) was outraged. He conspired with English Catholics to overthrow Elizabeth and put her cousin, the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots (a Stuart) on the English throne. * 1587: Elizabeth ordered the execution of Mary for treason, and Philip declared war on England * The Spanish Armada: a fleet of 132 warships was sent to attack England. It was defeated in 1588 by the superior naval tactics of the smaller, more maneuverable English fleet led by Sir Francis Drake. * Culture
* Golden age of English lit.
* Shakespeare, Spenser, Donne, Francis Bacon