The Anatomy of Cells

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Ch. 1: Biology: Exploring Life
1) Slides 1 and 2: What is the main difference between physiological adaptation (as in sense, respond and adapt to the environment) and evolutionary adaptation? Evolutionary adaptation occurs over generations. Evolutionary adaptation does involve genetic change but it’s the change in traits as a result of genetic change that drives natural selection and evolutionary adaptation (just genetic change alone won’t drive evolutionary change). Physiological adaptation is an adjustment to environmental stress.
2) Provide one example of physiological adaptation and one example of evolutionary adaptation (can be for any organism, including humans): ​Physiological adaptation: Examples of psychological adaptations in a human is :acclimated to adjust to environmental change in weather cold, hot and high altitudes without genetic change long-term acclamations when people lose excess body fat and are very slender for long periods of time a result of mild long-term undernourishment they will retain more body fat eventually becoming obese. They experience this when they initially lose body fat and again gain later when they retain it Tanning is a seasonal adaptation. ​Evolutionary adaptation: Eyes in front of head in humans instead of on side of head like other mammals.

3) Slide 3: Why is the nucleus of the cell in slide 3 so large? In other words, what is this cell doing that ​requires that its nucleus be so large? (Please be specific). In eukaryotic cell in slide #3 has organelles including a nucleus containing DNA and mitochondria energy organelles .Compared to the prokaryotic cell which has the DNA in the cytoplasm smaller and simpler and doesn’t contain a nucleus or other organelles, it does have cell membrane. Bacteria and Archea are single celled prokaryotes. Slide #3 shows a white blood cell which produce variation of antibodies to kill off pathogens, DNA is spread out in the white blood cell. Protein synthesis in the cell RNA to DNA has function. DNA is in the nucleus. The components in this type of cell has the nucleus, ribosomes , ER , cytosketen cell membrane. thier function is to destroy pathogens (bacteria).

4) In comparison, why is the nucleus of our cheek cells so small? (please be specific). The nucleus controls the activity of the cell.
The cell Membrane surrounds the nucleus of the cheek.
cytoplasma in that nucleus
bacteria smaller and compares you see them as small dark spots

5) From lab: What is the most obvious difference that you notice right away between our cheek cells (eukaryotic cells) and bacteria (prokaryotic cells) when viewed under the microscope? Obvious difference is the color and size

6) Slide 9: Name and briefly describe one emergent property, characteristic or function that emerges as we build structure from heart muscle cell to heart muscle tissue: strength structure size function property. Electronic charge it is alive, signal.

7) Name and briefly describe one emergent property, characteristic or function that emerges as we build structure from heart muscle tissue to heart: heart muscle has grown to pump

8) Name and briefly describe one emergent property, characteristic or function that emerges as we build structure from the heart to the cardiovascular system: pump blood through cardiovascular system

9) Regarding the process of evolution, which of the following is in the correct order (arrow means “leads to”) a) genetic variation →biological variation →natural selection b) natural selection → biological variation → genetic variation c) biological variation → genetic variation → natural selection​ d) all of the above

Answer D) all the above

10) Slide 11: Which color will the beetle population be in a year? Why? Dark increasing frequency of traits within population that enhances survival and reproductive success in natural selection passes on successful traits to offspring.

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