Tenses in English

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  • Topic: Grammatical tenses, Past tense, Perfect aspect
  • Pages : 10 (1671 words )
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  • Published : January 20, 2013
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16 TENSES IN ENGLISH
I. PRESENT TENSE
1. Simple Present Tense
This tense is used to express something that have the character of remain to, real truth or habit. Formulas of Present Tense:
*With verb
(positive) S + V1 + s/es + O
(negative) S + do not/does not + V1 + O
(interrogative) Do/does + S + V1 + O?

Example(s):
(positive)
- I read a book
- She drinks a cup of tea

(negative)
- I don’t read a book
- She doesn’t drink a cup of tea

(interrogative)
- Do you read a book?
- Does she drink a cup of tea?

*Without verb
(positive) S + is/am/are + complement
(negative) S + is/am/are + not + complement
(interrogative) Is/am/are + S + complement?

Example(s):
(positive)
- I am a teacher
- They are a students

(negative)
- I am not a teacher
- They are not a students

(interrogative)
- Am I a teacher?
- Are they a students?

2. Present Continuous Tense
This Tense is used to express something really action is doing in this time. sentences in this tense a more regular weared than present tense. Formulas of Present Continuous Tense:
(positive) S + is/am/are + Ving + O
(negative) S + is/am/are + not + Ving + O
(interrogative) Is/am/are + S + Ving + O?

Example(s):
(positive)
- I am reading a book
- She is drinking a cup of tea

(negative)
- I am not reading a book
- She is not drinking a cup of tea

(interrogative)
- Are you reading a book?
- Is she drinking a cup of tea?

3. Present Perfect Tense
This is Tense which was generally assumed most was difficult to comprehended. Formulas of Present Perfect Tense:
*With verb
(positive) S + have/has + V3 (past participle)
(negative) S + have/has + not + V3 (past participle)
(interrogative) Have/has + S + V3 (past participle)?

Example(s):
(positive) :
- I have read a book
- She has read a book

(negative)
- I haven’t read a book
- She hasn’t drunk a cup of tea

(interrogative)
- Have you read a book?
- Has she drunk a cup of tea?

*Without verb
(positive) S + have/has + been + complement
(negative) S + have/has + not + been + complement
(interrogative) Have/has + S + been + complement?

Example(s):
(positive)
- I have been a teacher since two years
- He has been a student in Seoul University since 2010

(negative)
- I haven’t been a teacher since two years
- He hasn’t been a student in Seoul University since 2010

(interrogative)
- Have you been a teacher?
- Has he been a student?

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
If an action started past time but still is doing till now hence us use sentence in the form of Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Formula of Present Perfect Continuous Tense:
(positive) S + have/has + been + Ving + complement
(negative) S + have/has + not + been + Ving + complement
(interrogative) Have/has + S + been + Ving + complement?

Example(s):
(positive) She has been reading a book for two hours
(negative) She has not been reading a book for two hours
(interrogative) Has she been reading a book for two hours?

II. PAST TENSE
1. Simple Past Tense
It is used to express an old world action that happened. First way is added d or of ‘ed’ at second verb (regular verb). Second way in generally change the vowel sounds (irregular verb). Formula of Simple Past Tense:

*With verb
(positive) S + V2 + O
(negative) S + did not + V2 + O
(interrogative) Did + S + V1 + O?

Example(s):
(positive) :
- I read a book
- She drank a cup of tea

(negative)
- I didn’t read a book
- She didn’t drink a cup of tea

(interrogative)
- Did you read a book?
- Did she drink a cup of tea?

*Without verb
(positive) S + was/were + complement
(negative) S + was/were + not + complement
(interrogative) Was/were + S + complement?

Example(s):
(positive)
- I was a teacher
- They were a students

(negative)
- I was not a teacher
- They were not a students

(interrogative)
- Was I a teacher?
- Were they a students?

2. Past Continuous...
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