1. Anselm is a theist (theism deism)
2. Gaunilo is a theist
3. Conclusion of Anselm's argument: God exists (A being that which none greater can be conceived exists)
4. Conclusion of Gaunilo's argument: Anselm's argument is flawed/unsound. (A perfect island exists)
5. Gaunilo's analogy: Perfect island
Paley: Argument from design for the existence of God. (also known as: teleological argument)
*The basic idea behind any design argument:
-When you look in the world, you see evidence of design.
-The designer is God.
-(When you look at natural objects; trees, etc.)
*Paley's idea: Look at the _biological_world.
-Other design arguments: look at physics
**A priori: Prior to experience
**Posteriori: Based on experience
Are design arguments a priori or a posteriori?
*Design arguments are "a posteriori" arguments
Are design arguments deductive (valid or invalid; provide obvious truth) or inductive (provide evidence)?
6) Paley talks about finding a watch in the heath (field). What does he say we should infer about the watch?
- It had a designer (someone made it)
- Even if you had never seen a watch before, you'd make this inference
- He says, "If you found a stone, you wouldn't infer a designer."
- He says, "If you found a telescope, you'd infer it had a designer."
- He says, "If you found an eye, you should also infer it has a designer."
§ What if watches made watch-babies?
§ Paley says, All the more evidence for a designer.
Objections to Paley:
1) Paley was writing in 1800. Evolutionary theory came in the mid-1800s.
*Possible ways of 'defending' Paley, in the face of evolutionary biology.
1) The whole evolutionary structure: all the more evidence for a designer.
2) God/ designer is involved in evolutionary processes
- "Intelligent design theory" -- you can get evidence for...