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Introduction to Telecommunications
Network Engineering
Second Edition

For a listing of recent titles in the Artech House Telecommunications Library, turn to the back of this book.

Introduction to Telecommunications
Network Engineering
Second Edition

Tarmo Anttalainen

Artech House
Boston • London
www.artechhouse.com

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Anttalainen, Tarmo.
Introduction to telecommunications network engineering/Tarmo Anttalainen.—2nd ed. p. cm. — (Artech House telecommunications library)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-58053-500-3 (alk. paper)
1. Telecommunication systems. I. Title. II. Series
TK5105 .A55 2003
004.6—dc21
2002044067

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Anttalainen, Tarmo
Introduction to telecommunications network engineering.—2nd ed. (Artech House telecommunications library)
1. Telecommunication systems
2. Telecommunication systems—Handbooks, manuals, etc.
I. Title
621.3’82
ISBN 1-58053-500-3

Cover design by Gary Ragaglia

© 2003 ARTECH HOUSE, INC.
685 Canton Street
Norwood, MA 02062
All rights reserved. Printed and bound in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Artech House cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. International Standard Book Number: 1-58053-500-3

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2002044067
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents
xv

Preface
Acknowledgments

xix

1

Introduction to Telecommunications

1

1.1

What Is Telecommunications?

1

1.2

Significance of Telecommunications

1

1.3

Historical Perspective

3

1.4

Standardization

7

1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4
1.5.5
1.5.6

Standards Organizations
Interested Parties
National Standardization Authorities
European Organizations
American Organizations
Global Organizations
Other Organizations

9
10
11
11
12
13
14

1.6

Development of the Telecommunications Business

15

v

vi

Introduction to Telecommunications Network Engineering

1.7

Problems and Review Questions
References

17
17

2

The Telecommunications Network: An Overview

19

2.1

Basic Telecommunications Network

19

2.1.1
2.1.2

Transmission
Switching

20
20

2.1.3

Signaling

21

2.2

Operation of a Conventional Telephone

22

2.2.1

Microphone

22

2.2.2
2.2.3

Earphone
Signaling Functions

23
23

2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4

Signaling to the Exchange from the Telephone
Setup and Release of a Call
Rotary Dialing
Tone Dialing
Local Loop and 2W/4W Circuits

24
24
25
26
28

2.5

Telephone Numbering

30

2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.5.5

International Prefix
Country Code
Trunk Code, Trunk Prefix, or Area Code
Subscriber Number
Operator Numbers

31
31
32
32
32

2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4

Switching and Signaling
Telephone Exchange
Signaling
Switching Hierarchy
Telephone Call Routing

33
33
34
37
38

2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2

Local-Access Network
Local Exchange
Distribution Frames

41
42
43

2.8

Trunk Network

45

Contents

vii

2.9

International Network

46

2.10
2.10.1

Telecommunications Networks
Public Networks

47
47

2.10.2
2.10.3

Private or Dedicated Networks
Virtual Private Networks

51
52

2.10.4

INs

53

2.10.5

Public Switched Telecommunications
Network Today

56

2.11
2.11.1

Network Management
Introduction

58
59

2.11.2
2.11.3
2.11.4...
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