2. What were the conditions like for Hawaii's laborers?
The laborers were brought to Hawaii as cheap labors. Their labor enables the planters to transform sugar production into Hawaii's leading industry. Low wage, long working hour.
3. What was the ethnic makeup of Hawaii's immigrant workers? How was this exploited by plantation owners? 1923: Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians: 16.3 %Caucasians 7.7%Chinese 9.2%Japanese 42.7%
Portuguese: 10.6%Puerto Ricans: 2.2%Filipinos: 8.2%
4. What were some of the ways the plantation owners used to keep the workers "under control?" Were these attempts always successful? How did the workers respond or even counter some of those methods? Paternalism: Designed to pacify labor's unrest and served to maintain a racial and class hierarchy. Coercion: Punish the workers. control workers with authority. (fines, arrestment, physical punishment: whip)
Occupational structure stratifying employment according to race. Supervisory: white, 1900, contract labor system still worked, under contract were bound by law to serve 3~5 yrs. Organic Act of 1900 abolished the contract labor system 1904, Hawaiian Sugar Planters restricted skill position. "exclude Asians. Were not white hence ineligible to become citizens" Establish central labor bureau to set wage rates. Utilized a multitiered wage system to pay different wage rates to different nationalities. Divide-and-control system
Provide incentive for bonus system. Paid once a year (similar to the year-end bonus) President Theodore Roosevelt prohibit the passage of Japanese from Hawaii to the mainland.
Fight back violentlycounterfeit couponspretend illness/workingresorted to opium and alcohol desertion from service