Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
* Is the process of determining how an information system (IS) can support business needs, designing the system, building it, and delivering it to users. * The key person in the SDLC is the systems analyst, who analyzes the business situation, identifies the opportunities for improvements, and designs an IS to implement the improvements. The Systems Analyst
* The systems analyst plays a key role in IS development projects. * The systems analyst works closely with all project team members so that the team develops the right system in an effective way. * Systems analysts must understand how to apply technology in order to solve problems. * Systems analysts may serve as change agents who identify organizational improvement needed, design systems to implement those changes, and train and motivate others to use the systems. Systems Analyst Skills
* Technical – Must understand the technical environment, technical foundation, and technical solution. * Business – Must understand how IT can be applied to business situations. * Analytical – Must be problem solvers. (Analyse)
* Interpersonal – Need to communicate effectively.
* Management – Need to manage people and to manage pressure and risks. * Ethical - Must deal fairly, honestly, and ethically with other project members, managers, and systems users. Systems Analyst Roles
* Business analyst - Focuses on the IS issues surrounding the system. * Systems analyst - Focuses on the business issues surrounding the system. * Infrastructure analyst - Focuses on technical issues
* Change management analyst - Focuses on the people and management issues surrounding the system installation. * Project manager - Ensures that the project is completed on time and within budget, and that the system delivers the expected value to the organization. Career Paths for Systems Analysts
PLAN - This phase is the fundamental process of understanding why an information system should be built, and determining how the project team will go about building it. * Why –
* How -
1. During project initiation, the system’s business value to the organization is identified (How will it lower costs or increase revenues?). -------------------------------------------------
2. During project management, the project manager creates a work plan, staffs the project, and puts techniques in place to help the project team control and direct the project through the entire SDLC. ANALYSIS - The analysis phase answers the questions of who will use the system, what the system will do, and where and when it will be used. During this phase the project team investigates any current system(s), identifies improvement opportunities, and develops a concept for the new system.
1. Analysis strategy: This is developed to guide the projects team’s efforts. This includes a study of the current system and its problems, and envisioning ways to design a new system. 2. Requirements gathering: The analysis of this information leads to the development of a concept for a new system. This concept is used to build a set of analysis models. 3. System proposal: The proposal is presented to the project sponsor and other key individuals who decide whether the project should continue to move forward. Requirement
* Who - Consumer (User)
* What - eg. ATM
* When - Time
Where - eg. Bank
DESIGN - The design phase decides how the system will operate, in terms of the hardware, software, and network infrastructure; the user interface, forms, and reports that will be used; and the specific programs, databases, and files that will be needed. * How
* Data Flow Diagram(DFD)
* Entity R/ship Diagram (ERD)
1. Design Strategy: This clarifies whether the system will be developed by the company or outside the company. 2. Architecture Design: This describes the...
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