System Unit

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Chapter 4 Objectives
Differentiate among various styles Differentiate among various styles of system units of system units Identify chips, adapter cards, and other Identify chips, adapter cards, and other components of aamotherboard components of motherboard Describe the components of aaprocessor and how Describe the components of processor and how they complete aamachine cycle they complete machine cycle Identify characteristics of various personal Identify characteristics of various personal computer processors on the market today computer processors on the market today Define aabit and describe how aaseries of bits Define bit and describe how series of bits represents data represents data Explain how programs transfer in Explain how programs transfer in and out of memory and out of memory Differentiate among the various Differentiate among the various types of memory types of memory Describe the types of expansion slots and Describe the types of expansion slots and adapter cards adapter cards Explain the difference among aaserial port, aa Explain the difference among serial port, parallel port, aaUSB port, and other ports parallel port, USB port, and other ports Describe how buses contribute to aa Describe how buses contribute to computer’s processing speed computer’s processing speed Identify components in mobile computers Identify components in mobile computers and mobile devices and mobile devices

Chapter 4 The Components of the System Unit

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The System Unit
What is the system unit?
Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data Sometimes called the chassis
system unit system unit system unit

The System Unit
What are common components inside the system unit?
Processor Memory Adapter cards
Sound card Modem card Video card Network card
power supply drive bays

processor

memory ports

system unit

Ports Drive bays Power supply
network card modem card

sound card

video card

p. 4.04 Fig. 4-1

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p. 4.03 Fig. 4-2

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The System Unit
What is the motherboard?
Main circuit board in system unit Contains adapter cards, processor chips, and memory chips Also called adapter cards processor chip

The System Unit
What is a chip?
Small piece of semi-conducting material on which integrated circuits are etched Integrated circuits contain many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current Chips are packaged so they can be attached to a circuit board Click to view animation dual inline packages (DIP) holds memory chips

memory chips

system board

memory slots Expansion slots for adapter cards

pin grid array (PGA) package holds processor chips

motherboard

p. 4.04 Fig. 4-3

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p. 4.04 Fig. 4-4

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Central Processing Unit
What is the central processing unit (CPU)?
Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer Control unit directs and coordinates operations in computer Arithmetic logic unit Input (ALU) performs Devices arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations Processor

Control Control Unit Unit Arithmetic Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Logic Unit (ALU) Information Data Information

Central Processing Unit
What is a machine cycle?
Four operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle
Step 1. Fetch
Obtain program instruction or data item from memory

Memory

Data

Memory
Information Data Information

Information

Output Devices

Step 4. Store
Write result to memory
Processor

Step 2. Decode
Translate instruction into commands

Also called the processor

ALU

Step 3. Execute
Carry out command

Control Unit

Storage Devices
p. 4.05 Fig. 4-5
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p. 4.06 Fig. 4-6

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Central Processing Unit
What is pipelining?
CPU begins fetching second instruction before completing machine cycle for first instruction Results in faster processing

Central Processing Unit
What is a register?
Temporary high-speed storage area that holds data and...
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