# Syntax: Structural Relations

Topics: Domination, Dominance, Syntax Pages: 3 (392 words) Published: July 10, 2012
1. The parts of a tree
Branch
Node
Branching, non branching
Root, terminal, non-terminal
Labels

2. Domination

Structural relations - relations that hold between the different parts

2.1 Domination

* Node A dominates Node B if and only if A is higher up in the tree than B and if you can trace a line from A to B going only downwards. * A containment relation - see bracketed diagram!

Question: What's proper vs simple domination?

2.2 Exhaustive domination

A dominates a set of terminal nodes, provided that:
1. A dominates all embers of the set
2. There is no terminal node dominated by A that's not a member of the set

Constituent - a set of terminal nodes exhaustively dominated by a particular node

Constituent of - B is a constituent of A if and only if A dominates B

2.3 Immediate domination

Immediately dominate - A is the first node that dominates B

Mother
Daughter
Sisters

Root node
Terminal node
Non-terminal node

Immediate constituent of

3. Precedence

Sister precedence - A sister-precedes B iff. both are immediately dominated by the same node, and A appears to the left of B (in English)

Precedence - A precedes B iff.:

* Neither A dominates B nor B dominates A, AND
* A or some node dominating A sister-precedes B or some node dominating B * Precedence holds over all nodes, not just terminals
No crossing branches constraint - If X precedes Y, then X and all nodes dominated by X must precede Y and all nodes dominated by Y

Immediate precedence - A immediately precedes B if there is no node G that follows A but precedes B

Question: Is 'follows' the opposite of 'precede'?

4. C-command

C-command - A node C-commands its sisters and all the daughters (and granddaughters etc) of its sisters.

Symmetric c-command - between sisters
Asymmetric c-command - aunts & nieces

Government - A governs B if A c-commands B, and there is no node G that is c-commanded by A and...