Syntax - Passivization English vs. Czech

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The passive voice in Czech and English language is used in scientific, technical and formal texts and in manuals. Passive voice is strict and impersonal in both languages Czech and English. There are two forms of a sentence in English and Czech language 1. Active voice

2. Passive voice
Passivisation is a proces of creating passive voice by transfering of an active voice. Process of passivisation in English language is forming by discontinuous morpheme BE or GET and past participle of transitive verb. The purpose of creating passive sentences is also to emphasize or omit the Agent.

The task of this assignment is comparing following two sentences: 1. The neighbour damaged the sidewalk with my pickaxe.
a) The neighbour: Subject, agent, theme
b) damaged: Predicate/Verb in past tense
c) the sidewalk: Object, patient, rheme
2. Soused rozbil chodník mým krumpáčem.
a) Soused: Subject, agent, theme
b) rozbil: Predicate/Verb in past tense
c) chodník: Object, patient, rheme

Those sentences are in active voice. If we passivize those sentences we can observe several changes and differences between Czech and English passive voice. 1. The sidewalk was damaged with my pickaxe by my neighbour. a) By my neighbour:object, agent, rheme

b) Was damaged:predicate, passivisated verb
c) The sidewalk:subject, theme, patient
(i)Based on this parsing we can assume that in the process of passivization English sentence, object precedes adverbial particles (with my pickaxe) (ii)Also we can assume that in English passivisation the theme and rheme are exchanging which is relating to order in English sentence which has to remain the same (iii)In passivization of English sentence we have to use preposition by before the object or we can also use other preposition if we have inanimated object 2. Chodník byl rozbit sousedem (s) mým krumpáčem.

a) Sousedem:agent, adjunct, rheme
b) Byl rozbit:predicate,...
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