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Chapter 9 Vocab

Medard – Bishop of Noyon, northeast paris
Monophysite doctrine – Jesus had a single, fully divine nature Axum – Chief marketplace for exotic African goods such as ivory, gold, precious stones and animal skins. Schism - split in any organized group resulting in formal declaration of differences in doctrine or beliefs Iconoclasm – “destruction of images” the word originats with the movement against the veneration of images in the byzantine empire in 9th and 8th centuries. Ostrogoths – eastern goths who emerged as an independent force in the late 5th century following the death of Hun leader Attila. Franks – league of german tribes in the lower Rhine river valley Manor – great estate, consisting of farmlands, vineyards, and other productive assets owned by a lord and cultivated by serfs Serf – a semifree peasant tied to the land and subject to the judicial authority of a lord Scavelenoi – appeared in 6th century byzantine chronicles, abandoned their homeland to the slavs Slavs – small independent communities who rejected imperial order of Byzantium. Bedouin – tribes that regularly came to Mecca to pay homage to the Ka’aba. Hijra – Muhammad’s move to Medina

Jihad – Struggle
Qu’ran – book recording the revelations of Muhammad
Umma – the worldwide community of believers in Islam
Caliph – Designated successor to Muhammad as leader of the muslim faithful in civil affairs Imam – supreme leader of Islamic community.
Shi’a – branch of Islam that maintains only descendants of Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law Ali have a legitimate right to serve as caliph. Sunni – Main branch of Islam, which accepts hostical successions of Caliphs as legitimate leaders of Muslim community. Dar-al-Islam – house of belief, where Islam does not prevail and muslims cannot freely practice their religion Dhimmi – Arabic term for people of the book. Namely jews and christain who are seen as sharing the same religious tradition as muslim...

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