Medard – Bishop of Noyon, northeast paris
Monophysite doctrine – Jesus had a single, fully divine nature
Axum – Chief marketplace for exotic African goods such as ivory, gold, precious stones and animal skins.
Schism - split in any organized group resulting in formal declaration of differences in doctrine or beliefs
Iconoclasm – “destruction of images” the word originats with the movement against the veneration of images in the byzantine empire in 9th and 8th centuries.
Ostrogoths – eastern goths who emerged as an independent force in the late 5th century following the death of Hun leader Attila.
Franks – league of german tribes in the lower Rhine river valley
Manor – great estate, consisting of farmlands, vineyards, and other productive assets owned by a lord and cultivated by serfs
Serf – a semifree peasant tied to the land and subject to the judicial authority of a lord
Scavelenoi – appeared in 6th century byzantine chronicles, abandoned their homeland to the slavs
Slavs – small independent communities who rejected imperial order of Byzantium.
Bedouin – tribes that regularly came to Mecca to pay homage to the Ka’aba.
Hijra – Muhammad’s move to Medina
Jihad – Struggle
Qu’ran – book recording the revelations of Muhammad
Umma – the worldwide community of believers in Islam
Caliph – Designated successor to Muhammad as leader of the muslim faithful in civil affairs
Imam – supreme leader of Islamic community.
Shi’a – branch of Islam that maintains only descendants of Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law Ali have a legitimate right to serve as caliph.
Sunni – Main branch of Islam, which accepts hostical successions of Caliphs as legitimate leaders of Muslim community.
Dar-al-Islam – house of belief, where Islam does not prevail and muslims cannot freely practice their religion
Dhimmi – Arabic term for people of the book. Namely jews and christain who are seen as sharing the same religious tradition as... [continues]
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