In his writing regarding underdevelopment of development, Andrew Gunder Frank has tried to illustrate the history of the development, underdevelopment, and the evolution of dependency to a world system theory. Finally he has come up with some alternatives and has tried to elaborate the new dualism and the recent movements in the world.
According to Frank, development thinking emerged as an instrument of post war American hegemony and has defined it as the child of neo-imperialism and neo-colonialism which was the strategy of U.S. to hegemonies the semi-colonial countries. However, then the communist fear swept in the world with the Chinese and Cuban revolution. This posed urgency for U.S. to come up with a harmless alternative and the development thinking emerged. Soon, the development was equated with the economic growth which was a part of American pragmatism and imperialism. Development was defined along with the pre-defined steps and the pace in which the traditional sectors were replaced by the modern ones
He believed, equity comes beforehand than efficiency in economics and he considered the political change as the basic ingredient for the development. He denied structural growth models in the sense that they considered underdevelopment as traditional and original. He viewed dependence as being opposite to the development and so he argued for the march towards a self-reliant and non-dependent socialist economic structure as a solution.
However, the dependency theory prospered and was consumed elsewhere including Latin America. Some of the theories of dependency model was tried to be imposed in Chile but it was hard to ensure the equitable distribution and capturing the potential surplus was not an easy job. Though the efficiency did not increased over the years, equity and the social development had of course increased with increased people participation, dignity and...