Q1: what are the factors that influence the demand for tourism? * Attitude depend on an individual’s perception of the world * Perceptions are mental impressions of, say, a destination or travel company and are determined by many factors, which include childhood, family, work experience, education, books, television programmes and films and promotional images. Perception involves the encoding of information by individuals and influences attitudes and behavior towards products but does not explain by itself, or when combined with attitudes, why people want to travel. * Travel motivaton do explain why people want to travel and they are the inner urges that initiate travel demand * Images are sets of beliefs, ideas and impressions relating to products and destination Q2: why do we need to study the consumer behavior of tourists? It is important for tourism managers to research and understand the way in which tourism consumers make decisions and act in relation to the consumption of tourism products. We need to study a tourist’s consumer behaviour to be aware of: * The needs, purchase motives and decision process associated with the consumption of tourism * The impact of the different effects of various promotional tactics, including the internet * The possible perception of risk for tourism purchase, including the impact of terrorist incidents * The different market segments based upon purchase behavior * How managers can improve their chance of marketing success Q3: what are the motivational theories applied to tourist’s consumer behavior? Maslow’s Hierarchy model: the theory of motivation proposed by Maslow is in the form of a ranking, or hierarchy, of the arrangements of individual needs. The theory of motivation is holistic and dynamic and can be applied to both work and non-work sphere of life. Maslow identified two motivational types : 1. Deficiency or tension-reducing motives 2. Inductive or arousal –seeking motives
Dann Motivation model (7 elements) – P 46
1. Travel as a response to what is lacking yet desired. The tourists are motivated by the desire to experience phenomena that are different from those available in their home environment 2. Destination pull in response to motivational push. This distinguishes between the motivation of the individual tourist in terms of the level of desire (push) and the pull of the destination or attractions 3. Motivation as fantasy. A subset of the first two factors and suggests that tourists travel in order to undertake behavior that may not be culturally sanctioned in their home setting. 4. Motivation as classified purpose. A broad category which invokes the main purpose of a trip as a motivator for travel. Purpose may include visiting friends and relatives, enjoying leisure activities, or study 5. Motivational typologies. This approach is internally divided into: a) behavioral typologies such as the motivator “sunlust” (curiosity to experience they strange and unfamiliar) as proposed by Gray. b) typologies that focus on dimensions of the tourist role. 6. Motivation and tourist experiences. This approach is characterized by the debate regarding the authenticity of tourist experiences and depends upon beliefs about types of tourist experience. 7. Motivation as auto-definition and meaning. This suggests that the way in which tourists define their situations will provide a greater understanding of tourist motivation than simply observing their behavior. Plog’s Model
Plog developed a theory which allowed the US population to be classified into a series of interrelated psychographic types. These types range from two extremes: * The ‘psychocentric’ type is derived from 'psyche' or 'self-centred' where an individual centres thoughts or concerns on the small problem areas of life. These individuals tend to be conservative in their travel patterns, preferring ‘safe’ destinations and often taking many return trips. For this latter...
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