Study Guide for Oceanography

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Lecture 1:
What are the 3 domains of life? (Ch. 12, Section “The Three Domains of Life”) Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
What marine organism represents the vast majority of the ocean’s biomass? (Ch. 12, Section “How Are Marine Organisms Classified?”) Plankton
Plankton is a organism that float. Why is a copepod, which can swim and propel itself through the water, classified as plankton? (Ch. 12, Section “Plankton”) Because of its small size, it cannot swim very far or fast so its location is determined by currents Organisms that can photosynthesize and produce their own food are called what? (Ch. 12, Section “Plankton”) Autotrophic

Organisms that only spend part of their life cycle as plankton are referred to as what? (Ch. 12, Section “Plankton”) Meroplankton
What are nektobenthos? (Ch. 12, Section “Benthos”)
Organisms that live on the bottom but can swim or crawl through the water What is the primary factor that limits life on the deep-ocean floor? (Ch. 12, Section “Benthos”) Sparse food supply

Of Earth’s total number of species, why are the fewest in the marine pelagic realm? (Ch. 12, Section “How Many Marine Species Exist?”)
Uniform conditions in the pelagic realm make fewer specialized environments for organism adaptation as different species Why is the surface area to volume ratio important for phytoplankton? (Ch. 12, Section “Water’s Viscosity”)

A larger ratio provides higher resistance to sinking and less energy used to stay afloat Why do most fish and marine mammals have the same torpedo-like, streamlined shape? (Ch. 12, Section “Water’s Viscosity”)

The streamlined shape minimizes energy expended to move through the water Lecture 2
Most fresh water fish are hypertonic, meaning their body cells contain more salt than the surrounding water. Since osmosis should push water into their cells, why don’t they explode? (Ch. 12, Section “Salinity”)

They urinate a lot, so the water does not build up, they don’t drink any water, their calls have adapted to absorb salt, they have adapted to live with high osmotic pressure (ALL OF THE ABOVE) What is the primary difference between pelagic environment zones below the photic zone? (Ch. 12, Section “What Are Living Things, and How Are They Classified?”)

Increasing pressure with increasing depth
What are the reasons the ocean has a smaller daily, seasonal, and annual temperature range than that experienced on land? (Ch. 12, Section “Temperature”)
Ocean is more stable because higher heat capacity of water ocean warming reduced by evaporation, solar radiation penetrates deeply into ocean layers, and ocean mixing (ALL OF THE ABOVE) What is the definition of eurythermal? (Ch. 12, Section “Temperature”)

Organisms that can tolerate large changes in temperature
Freshwater fish are isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic relative to their environment? (Ch. 12, Section “Salinity”)
Hypertonic
How does water pressure change with depth? (Ch. 12, Section “Pressure”)
Pressure increases with depth
What is the euphotic zone? (Ch. 12, Section “What are the main divisions of the marine environment?”)
Zone where there is enough light to support photosynthesis
What are the 4 biozones of the oceanic province? (Ch. 12, Section “What are the main divisions of the marine environment?”)
Epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic, abyssopelagic
What is the neritic province? (Ch. 12, Section “What are the main divisions of the marine environment?”)
Zone with water with depths less than 200 meters
What is the deepest zone of the suboceanic province? (Ch. 12, Section “Benthic Environment”) Hadal

Lecture 3
Biological oceanographers discuss about biomass frequently. Just what is biomass? (Ch. 13, Section “What is Primary Productivity?”
The total mass of all organisms of a given class
What is the difference between gross primary productivity and net primary productivity? (Ch. 13, Section “What Kind of Photosynthetic Marine Organisms Exist?”)
Gross primary...
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