Study Guide for Dna Replication for Microbiology

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Compare & Contrast Chromosomes

ProkaryotesEukaryotes (humans)
Single2 Sets of Chromosomes
Reproduce Binary Fission2 Alleles of each gene
(replicate itself)
one allele or version each geneCell nucleus
Cytoplasm (Site of transcription/Translation)Splicing
Small 30s and large 50s subunit40s & 60s Subunit region
of genes that code for proteins
are called exons non coding
called introns
Cells are made up of molecules, which are made up of atoms (smallest units of matter). When atoms are joined together by hydrogen bonds they are molecules. (Hold DNA together)

DNA Replication

Said to be semiconservative
In bacteria DNA replication proceeds simultaneously in both directions, away from the origin of replication. DNA is the template or genetic material of the cell, the info for building proteins and RNA is located in the DNA. The sequence of DNA that contains the info for a single protein or RNA is called a GENE.

• Purpose – to replicate dna in preparation for cell divison and to provide info for protein synthesis • Enzymes Involved in order –
o Single Strand
o Helicases – disrupt hydrogen bonds that hold two strands together. o Primase (RNA polymerase) – Provides a starting place for DNA polymerase III, synthesizes short strands of RNA (primers) that are complimentary to DNA o DNA Polymerase III - synthesizes the new strands of dna complimentary to the original. Must have a template to start, start adding nucleotides to the 3’ end o DNA Polymerase I – cleans RNA out of the new DNA, removes RNA primers and replaces them w/DNA o DNA Ligase – seals the breaks in the backbone of the new DNA, catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds along the sugar phosphate backbone between the fragments. The neucleotides (simpler nitrogeneous base chemically bound w/sugar and phosphate group) joined together by bonds called ester...